Filipino Americans and the Glass Ceiling: A Quantitative Analysis of Cultural Adherence, Assertiveness, and Management

Abby Hamilton (1) , Daniel G. J. Kuchinka (2)
(1) Industrial and Organizational Psychology Graduate, Keiser University, 5601 Brookdale Way, Tampa, FL, USA , United States
(2) Industrial and Organizational Psychology Faculty, Keiser University, 34986 141st Avenue, Montgomery, MN, USA , United States


With a sample of 473 Filipino Americans in 35 states in the United States, this quantitative study was designed to investigate factors which surround Filipino Americans’ glass ceiling challenges in attaining higher-level positions in the workplace. The investigation explored the related variables, including years of management experience, adherence to two dimensions of Filipino cultural values (interpersonal norms and conservatism), and assertiveness.  Years of living in the United States, geographic location, and generational levels were also examined. The study revealed a statistically significant negative relationship between assertiveness and the interpersonal norms dimension of the Filipino culture. Findings revealed specific Filipino cultural traits which conflict with assertiveness. Results from the current study can be used for the development of assertiveness training for Filipino Americans who desire to advance in the workplace.

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Abby Hamilton (Primary Contact)
Daniel G. J. Kuchinka
Author Biographies

Abby Hamilton, Industrial and Organizational Psychology Graduate, Keiser University, 5601 Brookdale Way, Tampa, FL, USA

Dr. Abby Hamilton earned a PhD in Industrial and Organizational Psychology and is a second-generation Filipino American and public speaker on assertiveness and culture. She is the Director of Student Services at Everglades University, where she provides career counselling and leadership training. Dr. Hamilton is the principal scientist at a psychological assessment company that provides emotional intelligence tools for corporate use. Her research interests include assertiveness, leadership, emotional intelligence, culture, and communication.

Daniel G. J. Kuchinka, Industrial and Organizational Psychology Faculty, Keiser University, 34986 141st Avenue, Montgomery, MN, USA

Dr. Daniel G. J. Kuchinka earned a Ph.D. in Industrial and Organizational Psychology and is a Graduate Professor of Psychology at Keiser University and St. Peters University. His areas of expertise include servant leadership, organizational development, training, education, and spirituality in the workplace. Dr. Kuchinka designed and validated a new servant leadership measure, which is part of his book, Servant Leadership Manual: Education, Assessment, Training, and Organizational Development Activities.

Hamilton, A., & Kuchinka, D. G. J. (2022). Filipino Americans and the Glass Ceiling: A Quantitative Analysis of Cultural Adherence, Assertiveness, and Management. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 22(4), 66–76.

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