Developing An Intercultural Competence Instrument In Foreign Language Teaching Context: A Study Of Chinese Students Of Spanish As A Foreign Language

Tzu Yiu Chen (1)
(1) Faculty of Philology and Communication, Barcelona University, Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 585, 08007, Barcelona, Spain , Spain

Abstract

The present study aims to develop an intercultural competence (IC) instrument for Chinese students of Spanish as a Foreign Language (SFL). In order to do so, we took steps to modify the statements and confirm the validity of the IC instrument. The new instrument was validated by using exploratory factor analysis through a self-report methodology. The results showed that the instrument possessed adequate validity and reliability. The 28-item scale identified seven personal traits for the development of intercultural competence: attentiveness and willingness to interact; respect for cultural differences; interaction confidence; interaction enjoyment; non-verbal communication and behavior; cultural elements; and non-verbal aspects in verbal communication. The internal consistency of the scale was found to be adequate. Therefore, the newly constructed scale is valid and reliable for use in Chinese cultural settings.

Full text article

Generated from XML file

References

Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., & Anand, N. (2007). Cultural intelligence: its measurement and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance. Management and Organization Review, 3, 335-71. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2007.00082.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2007.00082.x

Arasaratnam, L. A. (2006). Further testing of a new model of intercultural communication competence. Communication Research Reports, 23(2), 93-99. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090600668923 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090600668923

Arasaratnam, L. A., & Doerfel, M. L. (2005). Intercultural communication competence: Identifying key components from multicultural perspectives. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(2), 137-163. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2004.04.001

Alwaely, S. A. kareem, & Al-Jasari, M. F. (2022). Students’ Involvement Level in Arabic Language Textbook Communication for Cycle One in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 22(2), 33–40. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v22i2.50 DOI: https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v22i2.50

Bennett, M. J. (1986). Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. In R. M. Paige. (Ed.), Cross-cultural orientation: New conceptualizations and applications (pp. 27-70). Lanham, MD: University Press.

Bennett, M. J. (2009a). Transformative training: a designing program for culture learning. In M.A. Moodian (Ed.). Contemporary Leadership and Intercultural Competence: Exploring the Cross-cultural Dynamics within Organizations (pp. 95-110). London: Sage. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452274942.n8

Bennett, M. J. (2009b). Cultivating Intercultural Competence: A Process Perspective. In Darla K. Deardorff (Ed.). The Sage handbook of intercultural competence (pp.121-140). Thousand oaks, CA: Sage. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781071872987.n6

Bhawuk, D., & Brislin, R. (1992). The measurement of cultural sensitivity using the concepts of individualism and collectivism. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16, 413-436. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(92)90031-O DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(92)90031-O

Bhawuk, D. P. S., & Sakuda, K. H. (2009). Intercultural sensitivity for global managers. In M. A. Moodian (Ed.), Contemporary Leadership and Intercultural Competence: Exploring Cross-Cultural Dynamics within Organizations (pp. 255-267). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452274942.n19

Bryman, A., & Cramer, D. (2005). Quantitative Data Analysis with SPSS 12 and 13: A Guide for Social Scientists., London: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203498187

Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (1996). Intercultural communication competence: A synthesis. Annals of the International Communication Association, 19(1), 353-383. https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.1996.11678935 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.1996.11678935

Chen, G. M. (1997). A review of the concept of intercultural sensitivity. Human Communication, 1, 1-16. https://digitalcommons.uri.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1037&context=com_facpubs

Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (2000). The development and validation of the intercultural sensitivity scale. Human Communication, 3, 1-15. https://digitalcommons.uri.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1035&context=com_facpubs DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/t61546-000

Chen, G. M. & Gao, Y. C. (2015). Construction of Intercultural Communication Competence Inventory for Chinese College Students Based on Knowing-and-Doing Model. Foreign Language in China, 65(3), 14-21.

Chen, T. Y. (2019). Un estudio descriptivo sobre la competencia intercultural de los estudiantes sinohablantes en el aula de español L2/LE. Doctoral thesis, published electronically: https://www.educacion.gob.es/teseo/mostrarRef.do?ref=1825719 (accessed 10 June 2022). Barcelona, Spain: Autonomous Barcelona University.

Chen, G. M., & Young, P. (2012). Intercultural communication competence. In A. Goodboy & K. Shultz (Eds.), Introduction to communication: Translating scholarship into meaningful practice (pp. 175-188). Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.

Chomeya, R. (2010). Quality of Psychology Test Between Likert Scale 5 and 6 Points. Journal of Social Sciences, 6(3), 399-403. https://doi.org/10.3844/jssp.2010.399.403 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/jssp.2010.399.403

Deardorff, D. K. (2004). The identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of international education at institutions of higher education in the United States. Doctoral thesis, published electronically: https://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/bitstream/handle/1840.16/5733/etd.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accessed 10 June 2022). Raleigh, USA: North Carolina State University.

Deardorff, D. K. (2006). Intercultural competence: The key competence in the 21st century? Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.

Deardorff, D. K. (2009). Implementing intercultural competence assessment. In D.K. Deardorff (Ed.), The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence (pp. 477-491). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781071872987.n28

Deardorff, D. K. (2011). Assessing intercultural competence. New directions for Institutional Research, 149, 65-79. https://doi.org/10.1002/ir.381 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ir.381

Deardorff, D. K., & Jones. E. (2012). An emerging focus in international higher education. In Deardorff, D.K., de Wit, H., Heyl, J. and Adams, T. (Eds), The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education (pp. 2-26). Sage Publications, Inc. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452218397

Fantini, A. & Tirmizi, A. (2006). Exploring and Assessing Intercultural Competence. World Learning Publications, 1. https://digitalcollections.sit.edu/worldlearning_publications/1

Gao, Y. H. (1998). The “Dao” and “Qi” concept of intercultural competence. Language Teaching and Research, 3, 39-53.

Gao, Y. C. (2014). Construction of the Theoretical Framework of the Intercultural Communicative Competence Evaluation System of Chinese College Students. Foreign Language World, 163(4), 80-88.

Gao, Y. C. (2016). A Survey on the Intercultural Communication Competence of Chinese College Student. Foreign languages and Their Teaching, 287(2), 71-78.

Goodman, N. (1994). Cross-cultural training for the global executive. In R. Brislin & T. Yoshida (Eds.), Improving intercultural interactions: Modules for cross-cultural training programs (pp. 34-54). London: Sage. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452204857.n3

Gudykunst, W. B. (2003). Cross-cultural and intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Gudykunst, W. B. (2005). An Anxiety/Uncertainty Management (AUM) Theory of Strangers' Intercultural Adjustment. In W. B. Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 419-457). Sage Publications Ltd.

George, D. and Mallery, P. (2001). SPSS for Windows: Step by Step. Allyn & Bacon.

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Hammer, M. R., & Bennett, M. J. (2002). The intercultural development inventory (IDI) manual. Portland, O.R.: Intercultural Communication Institute.

Hinkin, T. R. (1995). A review of scale development practices in the study of organizations. Journal of Management, 21(5), 967-988. https://doi.org/10.1016/0149-2063(95)90050-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639502100509

Huang, W. H. (2017). A preliminary study on the construction of Chinese intercultural sensitivity scale. Foreign Language Learning Theory and Practice, 2, 92-98. https://www.cnki.net

Jiang, J. (2015). Establishment of Intercultural Competence Framework: Take the INCA Project as an Example. Global Education, 340(11), 33-44.

Kassing, J. W. (1997). Development of the intercultural willingness to communicate scale. Communication Research Reports, 14(4), 399-407. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824099709388683 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08824099709388683

Kelly, C., & Meyers, J. (2011). Cross-cultural adaptability inventory. Ninneapolis: National Computer Systems, Inc.

Kim, Y. Y. (1991). Intercultural communication competence: A systems-theoretical view. In S. Ting- Toomey, & F. Korzenny (Eds.), Cross-cultural interpersonal communication (pp. 259-275). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Kline, P. (1993). The Handbook of Psychological Testing. London: Routledge.

Lin, Y., & Rancer, A. S. (2003a). Ethnocentrism, Intercultural Communication Apprehension, Intercultural Willingness to Communicate, and Intentions to Participate in an Intercultural Dialogue Program: Testing a Proposed Model. Communication Research Reports, 20(1), 62-72. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090309388800

Lin, Y., & Rancer, A. S. (2003b). Sex differences in intercultural communication apprehension, ethnocentrism, and intercultural willingness to communicate. Psychological Reports, 92(1), 62-72. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.2003.92.1.195 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090309388800

Mu, Y., & Yu, B. (2022). Chinese College Students’ Intercultural Competence: Current Situation, Barriers and Solutions. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 21(2), 44–57. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v21i2.13 DOI: https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v21i2.13

Nadeem, M. U., Mohammed, R., & Dalib, S. (2020). Retesting integrated model of intercultural communication competence (IMICC) on international students from the Asian context of Malaysia. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 74, 30-41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.10.006

Pearson, Robert H., & Mundform, Daniel J. (2010). Recommended Sample Size for Conducting Exploratory Factor Analysis on Dichotomous Data. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 9(2), 359-368. https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/jmasm/vol9/iss2/5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22237/jmasm/1288584240

Pragash, M., Sultana, M. A., & Khor, K. (2018). Ethnocentrism and Intercultural Willingness to Communicate: A Study of Malaysian Private University. International Journal of Law, Government and Communication, 3(12), 16-23. http://www.ijlgc.com/PDF/IJLGC-2018-12-12-02.pdf

Pragash, M., Sultana, M. A., & Khor, K. & Charles, R. (2021). Intercultural Communication and Barriers in Malaysian Public Universities: The Mediating Effect of Intercultural Willingness to Communicate. Asia-Pacific Social Science Review, 21(2), 103-124.

Roach, K. D., & Olaniran, B. A. (2001). Intercultural willingness to communicate and communication anxiety in international teaching assistants. Communication Research Reports, 18(1), 26-35. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090109384779 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090109384779

Ruben, B. D. (1976). Assessing communication competency for intercultural adaptation. Group and Organization Studies, 1, 334-354. https://doi.org/10.1177/105960117600100308 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/105960117600100308

Rubio, D. M., Berg-Weger, M., Tebb, S. S., Lee, E. S., & Rauch, S. (2003). Objectifying content validity: Conducting a content validity study in social work research. Social work research, 27(2), 94-104. https://doi.org/10.1093/swr/27.2.94 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/swr/27.2.94

Spitzberg, B. H. (2000). A Model Of Intercultural Communication Competence. Intercultural communication: A reader, 9, 375-387.

Spitzberg, B. H., & Changnon, G. (2009). Conceptualizing intercultural competence. In D. K. Deardorff (Ed.). The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence. SAGE. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781071872987.n1

Sunendar, D., Darmawangsa, D., & Sukmayadi, V. (2021). Thriving in Indonesian Academia: French Students’ Intercultural Communication Competence in Studying Abroad. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 21(1), 80–91. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v21i1.7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v21i1.7

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education.

Ting-Toomey, S. (1993). Communicative resourcefulness: An identity negotiation perspective. In R. L. Wiseman, & J. Koester (Vol. Eds.), Intercultural communication competence: Vol. 17, (pp. 72-111). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.

Ulu, G., Fan, W.W., & Shi, Y. (2015). Study of the Relationship between Chinese College Students’ International Posture and Their Intercultural Willingness to Communicate. Chinese Studies, 4, 77-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/chnstd.2015.43012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/chnstd.2015.43012

Wang, L. C. (2019). Research on Intercultural Sensitivity of International Students-Take a university in Liaoning province as an example. Master’s thesis. Liaoning, China, Dalian University of Foreign Languages.

Wu, J. F. (2015). Examining Chen and Starosta’s model of intercultural sensitivity in the Taiwanese cultural context. International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science, 6, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.5815/ijmecs.2015.06.01 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijmecs.2015.06.01

Wu, W. P., Fan, W. W., & Peng, R. Z. (2013). An analysis of the assessment tools for Chinese college students' intercultural communicative competence. Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 45(4), 581-592.

Xiao, F. (2016). Exploration on the Cultivation of Intercultural Communicative Competence of International Chinese Teachers. Ming Ri Feng Shang, 20, 142-143.

Xu, G. Z. (1980). Culturally loaded words and English language teaching. Modern Foreign Languages, 4, 21-27.

Yong, A. G., & Pearce, S. (2013). A Beginner’s Guide to Factor Analysis: Focusing on Exploratory Factor Analysis. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9(2), 79-94. https://doi.org/10.20982/tqmp.09.2.p079 DOI: https://doi.org/10.20982/tqmp.09.2.p079

Zhang, H. L. (2007). Intercultural approach to foreign language teaching. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

Zhang, W. D. & Yang, L. (2012). Construction of intercultural communicative competence- An empirical study from the perspective of foreign language education in China, Foreign Language World, 149(2), 8-16.

Zhong, H., Bai, Q. H., & Fan, W. W. (2013). Construction of Intercultural Communicative Competence Self-Report Scale for Chinese college students: A pilot study. Foreign Language World, 156(3), 47-56

Authors

Tzu Yiu Chen
tzyyiu@gmail.com (Primary Contact)
Author Biography

Tzu Yiu Chen, Faculty of Philology and Communication, Barcelona University, Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 585, 08007, Barcelona, Spain

Tzu-Yiu Chen (PhD., Autonomous University of Barcelona) is Visiting Professor of Chinese at the Faculty of Philology and Communication of Barcelona University, Spain. She also works as a Chinese teacher at the Confucius Institute Foundation of Barcelona.  Her research focuses on Spanish as a Foreign Language of Chinese students, especially on intercultural communication.

Chen, T. Y. (2022). Developing An Intercultural Competence Instrument In Foreign Language Teaching Context: A Study Of Chinese Students Of Spanish As A Foreign Language. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 22(4), 44–55. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v22i4.84

Article Details

Smart Citations via scite_
Views
  • Abstract 1440
  • Download PDF 476
  • XML 0