Outcome-Oriented and Process-Oriented Frameworks on Biculturalism

Hyun-Hee Heo (1) , Min-Sun Kim (2)
(1) Department of Public Health Sciences John A. Burns School of Medicine University of Hawaii at Manoa , United States
(2) University of Hawaii at Manoa , United States


This review attempts to answer the question, “How do individuals develop bicultural identities?” With today’s rapid globalization, not only are individuals increasingly mobile but also possess an unprecedented level of psychological interconnectedness. A growing number of cross-cultural researchers have examined the dynamic aspects of individuals’ cultural identities and the processes of their formation beyond stereotypical frameworks. Over time, acculturation literature has shifted from being outcome-oriented to being process-oriented. Outcome-oriented frameworks rely on in-groups’ judgment toward out-group individuals whereas process-oriented frameworks stress out-group individuals’ cultural identity development through an active process of inquiring, learning, and involvements. The outcome-oriented frameworks consist of the notion of “Marginality” and “Social Identity Theory.” The process-oriented frameworks consist of the model of “Ethnic Identity Formation,” “Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity,” “Cognitive Constructivist Approach”, and “Cultural Hybridization”. “Multidimensional Acculturation Model” is posited as a transitional model between the outcome-oriented framework and the process-oriented framework. Much study has increasingly concentrated on understanding the developmental process of individuals’ cultural identities in various situations, rather than categorizing “this new kind of person” based on dominant cultural groups’ perceptions. As researchers began to focus on how individuals process biculturalism, negative views have been replaced with positive views. Our review ends with implications regarding how and why biculturals behave in specific ways in intercultural communication situations.

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Hyun-Hee Heo
hyunheeh@hawaii.edu (Primary Contact)
Min-Sun Kim
Author Biographies

Hyun-Hee Heo, Department of Public Health Sciences John A. Burns School of Medicine University of Hawaii at Manoa

Hyun-Hee Heo is a doctoral student in Department of Public Health Sciences at the University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Min-Sun Kim, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Min‑Sun Kim is a professor of Communicology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Heo, H.-H., & Kim, M.-S. (2013). Outcome-Oriented and Process-Oriented Frameworks on Biculturalism. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 13(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v13i1.611

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