Towards a theoretical framework of intercultural communication ethics in the Arab Gulf culture The perspectives of global public relations practitioners in Bahrain

Layla Al Saqer (1)
(1) Department of Mass communication Tourism & Fine Arts College of Arts University of Bahrain , Bahrain


This research investigates the perspectives of global public relations practitioners in the governmental sector in Bahrain. Sixteen qualitative interviews were conducted to provide in-depth theoretical understanding of the intercultural communication ethics in the Arab Gulf. The researcher used the theoretical framework of Hofstede (1984; 1994) to analyze the data. The research reveals that an Arab framework of intercultural communication ethics should address the society’s dilemma between modernization and Arabic/Islamic traditional values. The research provides a proposed framework that consists of “revealed” and “avoided” processes of communication. This framework is based on Arabic relational values of openness, awareness of diversity, power hierarchy, loyalty to collective culture, motivation to achieve individual goals, respect to woman and motivation to develop uncertainty-avoidance strategies.

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Layla Al Saqer (Primary Contact)
Author Biography

Layla Al Saqer, Department of Mass communication Tourism & Fine Arts College of Arts University of Bahrain

Dr Layla AlSaqer is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Mass Communication, Tourism & Arts, College of Arts at the University of Bahrain. She has taught at the University of Bahrain since 2007. She has researched and published widely in peer-reviewed journals in the area of public relations and cultural studies. She participated in several international conferences and events. She has extensive academic and practical experience in the use of media and public relations in social marketing through supervising and arranging several social marketing campaigns exhibitions in Bahrain. She got her PhD in Public Relations from the Department of Film & Media Studies, University of Stirling in the UK in 2007. She also acquired a Higher Diploma in Academic Practice from York St John University in the UK in 2009. She has the membership of the Higher Education Academy in the UK (HEA). Her research interests include public relations education and practice, social marketing and cultural studies.

Saqer, L. A. (2019). Towards a theoretical framework of intercultural communication ethics in the Arab Gulf culture The perspectives of global public relations practitioners in Bahrain. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 19(3), 1–17.

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