3-D Negotiation in a Business Context Negotiation between Japanese and Americans

Junko Kobayashi (1), Linda Viswat (2)
(1) Junko Kobayashi Kansai Gaidai University, Japan,
(2) Linda Viswat Otemon Gakuin University, Japan


This paper examines negotiation between Japanese and Americans in a business context from the comprehensive framework of 3-D negotiation. The three dimensions refer to tactics, deal design and setup, all of which are in play to reinforce each other’s effectiveness. Interviews were conducted with 32 Americans: Americans working presently or previously at a Japanese company, and those working at an American company who had experience negotiating with Japanese business people. Further interviews were carried out with 16 Japanese who had experience negotiating with American business people. The results demonstrate that successful negotiation depends greatly on advance preparation accompanied by a high level of intercultural sensitivity.

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Junko Kobayashi
kjunko@kansaigaidai.ac.jp (Primary Contact)
Linda Viswat
Author Biographies

Junko Kobayashi, Junko Kobayashi Kansai Gaidai University

Junko Kobayashi is an associate professor at Kansai Gaidai University. She is the author of 10 English textbooks on intercultural communication.

Linda Viswat, Linda Viswat Otemon Gakuin University

Linda Viswat is a professor at Otemon Gakuin University where she teaches courses in intercultural communication. Her research has focused on sojourner adjustment, learning strategies of Japanese university students, motivation, and the development of a learning community.

Kobayashi, J., & Viswat, L. (2014). 3-D Negotiation in a Business Context Negotiation between Japanese and Americans. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 14(1), 1–06. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v14i1.668

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