How Cultural Intelligence-Based Principal Leadership Affects Teacher Task Performance: The Mediating Role of Organizational Culture and School Governance

Introduction

The effectiveness and efficiency of leadership are paramount in organizations due to their empirical impact on employee and company performance, especially in educational settings (Baig et al., 2019; Muenjohn et al., 2020). Leadership serves as a dynamic force that not only provides positive energy and creative impetus capable of shifting attitudes and behaviors in alignment with leadership directives (Fatonah, 2023) but also demonstrates the capacity to individually or collectively inspire, motivate, and enable subordinates towards committed and enthusiastic job performance. This approach prioritizes the achievement of a cohesive organizational vision, mission, and objectives (Newstrom, 2017; Robbins and Judge, 2019). Effective leadership necessitates specific competencies, such as cultural intelligence (CI), particularly given the diversity of cultural backgrounds among leaders and subordinates. This diversity underscores the need for culturally informed leadership, which is crucial for Indonesian school principals who oversee teachers from more than 1,300 ethnic groups, each with distinct socio-cultural characteristics.

CI conceptually emphasizes an individual's ability to recognize, understand, and adapt to various cultures (Berraies, 2019; Solomon & Steyn, 2017) while maintaining efficiency and effectiveness in cross-cultural interactions (Ang et al., 2015). This concept involves leveraging knowledge (cognitive aspect), motivation, and behavior to achieve success across different cultural contexts (Yari et al., 2020). Sternberg et al. (2021) describe CI as the capability to adjust and solve problems that arise from the interactions of individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds. It also entails fostering adeptness and adaptability in comprehending and learning about culture, with a focus on progressively developing more empathetic and behaviorally adaptive responses (Thomas & Inkson, 2017). In leadership practice, the significance of CI is acknowledged, especially as a means to influence subordinates effectively. Furthermore, a cultural intelligence-based principal leadership (CI-BPL) approach embodies the principal's ability to comprehend, adjust, and adapt to various cultural contexts within the school environment. This approach concentrates on influencing, motivating, and supporting subordinates both individually and collectively towards fulfilling the shared vision, mission, and goals of the organization. CI-BPL encompasses three components: (1) Cultural Understanding, which involves recognizing pertinent differences and their behavioral implications; (2) Mindfulness, which emphasizes maintaining an open mind and using present experiences as a foundation for knowledge; and (3) Behavioral Skills, which pertain to the ability to exhibit attitudes or social behaviors suitable for new cultural settings (Thomas & Inkson, 2017).

Despite the apparent importance, locating and analyzing specific studies on the CI-BPL approach remains challenging. CI has been correlated with self-confidence (Ott & Michailova, 2018), creativity (Bogilovic et al., 2017), innovative behavior, interpersonal trust, and job participation (Ramalu & Subramaniam, 2019; Afsar et al., 2021). Alifuddin and Widodo (2022) also found connections between CI and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), psychological capital, and interpersonal communication. Consequently, research on CI-BPL is not only crucial but also intriguing, encompassing its relationship with organizational culture, school governance, and teacher task performance. Previous studies have established that leadership and social culture substantially affect corporate governance (Yuliastuti & Tandio, 2020; Mukhtaruddin et al., 2020), and principal's CI levels have been linked to traditional leadership behaviors (Göksoy, 2017). The influence of CI on organizational culture has been documented (Gabel-Shemueli et al., 2019), and the impacts on task performance have been assessed (Presbitero, 2020), with various reports supporting these findings (Setti et al., 2022; Najm & Zaghari, 2020). However, some studies have reported inconsistent results, such as Aydin (2018), which observed that organizational culture influenced leadership styles, and Zahoor et al. (2022), which noted the impact of corporate governance on humble leadership. Other analyses have highlighted the negligible effects of organizational authority and administration on employee performance (Lolowang et al., 2019; Laili et al., 2019), revealing a research gap that necessitates further exploration. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of CI-BPL on organizational culture, school governance, and teacher task performance, along with the analysis of a new empirical model that prioritizes the mediation mechanism.

Literature Review and Hypothesis Development

CI-BPL and School Governance

Reports highlighting the influence of CI-BPL on school governance are limited. However, Kusumawati (2020) demonstrated that good corporate governance (GCG) is affected by leadership, corroborated by Yuliastuti and Tandio (2020), who found that leadership style significantly influences GCG. Moreover, Mukhtaruddin et al. (2020) confirmed the substantial impact of social culture on corporate governance. Thus, CI-BPL likely affects school governance, particularly in shaping the behavior and structure of the board of directors, reflecting the principal’s role (Ford & Ihrke, 2018). Quan-Baffour and Arko-Achemfuor (2014) noted that school governance should involve institutional member participation for increased efficiency and suggested expanding governance scope by integrating concepts from private and external educational entities. Ball and Youdell (2008) referred to this expansion as "endogenous privatization," adopting private-sector ideas and practices within public organizations. Kusumawati (2020) further highlighted leadership's influence on GCG, emphasizing its adoption from general business practices to educational institutions. GCG represents a system aimed at fostering trust and ensuring equitable treatment of all stakeholders (Mahrani & Soewarno, 2018) and is concerned with processes and structures that guide business direction and management for the benefit of all participants (Zabri et al., 2016). Governance is also about the synergy between these processes and structures to guide, manage, and monitor organizational activities toward achieving objectives (Hey, 2017). Svärd (2017) identified five GCG principles: transparency, accountability, responsibility, independence, and fairness. These principles relate to affective commitment (Aini & Maswanto, 2019) and OCB (Widodo, 2020), making GCG a crucial determinant in all types of organizations, including educational ones. School governance similarly combines processes and structures for academic activity management, aligned with stakeholder expectations through the application of the aforementioned principles. In Indonesia, however, the full implementation of these principles remains insufficient, potentially affecting teacher performance—a key factor in attaining academic goals. Hence, examining school governance is vital, particularly in evaluating antecedents such as leadership. For instance, school principals with CI components like cultural knowledge and awareness can promote good institutional governance, emphasizing accountability, responsibility, and fairness. Based on these observations, the following hypothesis is proposed:

H1: CI-BPL has a direct effect on school governance.

CI-BPL and Organizational Culture

CI-BPL's relevance extends to organizational culture. Göksoy (2017) demonstrated that principals' levels of cultural intelligence significantly and positively affect leadership behaviors. This finding is supported by other research indicating that CI impacts organizational culture (Kubicek et al., 2019; Gabel-Shemueli et al., 2019). Sozbilir and Yesil (2016) also found that cultural intelligence influences cross-cultural job satisfaction, highlighting the strong perceived effects of CI-BPL on business traditions. Furthermore, organizational culture is viewed as a competitive edge (Joseph & Kibera, 2019) that affects business efficacy and performance (Gochhayat et al., 2017; Fatoki, 2019; Mong Le et al., 2020). Organizational culture is conceptually a system of beliefs, assumptions, expectations, and values that define an organization's unique characteristics and stakeholder interactions (Lapina et al., 2015). Robbins and Judge (2019) identified a shared meaning system distinguishing organizational members from external entities. This system is reflected in the values, traditions, beliefs, and practices embraced and propagated within an organization (Pilch & Turska, 2015; McShane & von Glinow, 2018). To operationalize this concept, four indicators are employed: involvement, consistency, adaptability, and mission (Denison et al., 2014; Wahyuningsih et al., 2019). From an educational standpoint, organizational culture within schools involves a system of shared values and practices that uphold academic principles, such as engagement, uniformity, adaptability, and purpose. Consequently, school principals with substantial cultural knowledge, awareness, and behavioral skills are poised to nurture a conducive organizational culture, evident in involvement, consistency, adaptability, and mission. Therefore, the following hypothesis is postulated.

H2: CI-BPL directly influences organizational culture.

CI-BPL and Teacher Task Performance

CI-BPL has been shown to be particularly effective in influencing teacher task performance, with individual work efforts profoundly impacting school organizations. The enhancement of employee performance has been identified as a significant organizational focus, one that is expected to be emphasized (Wolor et al., 2022). Previous studies have linked individual efficiency to improved organizational performance (Fahmi et al., 2019), highlighting that employee job efforts contribute to competitive advantage and superior organizational effectiveness (Hirst et al., 2018; Kauppila et al., 2018). Performance has been significantly associated with the actions of employees aimed at advancing corporate objectives (Aguinis, 2018; Ivancevich et al., 2018), with such actions demonstrating the value of employee behavior in contributing to organizational success (Colquitt et al., 2019). Task performance, a primary determinant of overall efficiency (Ellington et al., 2014), describes the extent to which employees meet both formal and informal job requirements (Mom et al., 2015), encompassing the acquisition and application of daily work-related knowledge and skills. Task performance is crucial across various business sectors, including education, necessitating careful consideration. Aguinis (2018) suggests that the transformation of raw resources into goods or services serves as a metric for gauging task performance, thereby facilitating organizational effectiveness and efficiency. Within the educational context, teacher task performance encapsulates the effective and efficient fulfillment of teaching duties according to academic standards and the requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities. It is noted that many teachers struggle to exhibit optimal work efforts for various reasons, including a lack of capacity to engage with educators from diverse cultural backgrounds. Numerous studies have demonstrated that CI-BPL influences team and organizational (Nosratabadi et al., 2020), as well as firm-level innovation performance (Berraies, 2019). Presbitero (2020) illustrated the effective and efficient impacts of CI on individual task performance, with several analyses corroborating the connection between CI and performance (Kadam et al., 2019; Puyod & Charoensukmongkol, 2019; Setti et al., 2022; Najm & Zaghari, 2020). School principals endowed with cultural knowledge, awareness, and behavioral skills can realistically influence teachers to exhibit improved task performance. From these considerations, the following hypothesis is posited:

H3: CI-BPL has a direct effect on teacher task performance.

Organizational Culture and School Governance

Despite the scarcity of studies examining organizational culture's impact on school governance, Syofyan and Putra (2020) have demonstrated that business culture is a determinant of corporate governance. It is thus essential to analyze how organizational culture influences school governance, to validate the contributions of elements such as involvement, consistency, adaptability, and mission. Accordingly, the following hypothesis is proposed:

H4: Organizational culture has a direct impact on school governance.

Organizational Culture and Teacher Task Performance

Organizational culture is recognized as a positive force in enhancing task performance, with schools that foster academic community participation demonstrating supportive attitudes and behaviors as well as high adaptability. The school's mission is integral to augmenting teacher task performance, transforming resources into superior educational services, and bolstering academic effectiveness and efficiency. Bhardwaj (2021) and Algawazi et al. (2021) have found that organizational culture exerts a significant and positive effect on task performance. This view aligns with other research indicating that organizational culture has an influence on employee performance (Ariprayugo et al., 2020; Putri & Wardi, 2020; Kusumawati, 2020; Aryani & Widodo, 2020; Laksono, 2023; Zhang et al., 2023; Sari et al., 2023). Based on these insights, the following hypothesis is advanced:

H5: Organizational culture directly affects teacher task performance.

School Governance and Teacher Task Performance

The concept of school governance is linked to teacher task performance, as effective administration can stimulate the high-quality execution of organizational activities. This is evident in the conversion of school resources into outstanding educational services, which contributes to the achievement of academic goals. Prior research indicates that GCG impacts the performance of employees (Gilang et al., 2018; Adnyana & Dewi, 2020) and organizations (Azutoru et al., 2017; Muzakir & Darmawan, 2018; AbuSen & Saad, 2023) at both individual and corporate levels. Broadly, governance reforms have been shown to significantly enhance school performance (Ford & Ihrke, 2018). Hence, the following hypothesis is formulated:

H6: School governance directly influences teacher task performance.

Research Methods

Research Design and Measurement

The study employed a survey-based causal relationship design, distributing questionnaires developed with theoretically grounded indicators. The questionnaires utilized a Likert scale, offering five response options from strongly disagree (score = 1) to strongly agree (score = 5). This approach encompassed four variables: CI-BPL, task performance, organizational culture, and school governance. As per the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) framework, CI-BPL was treated as an exogenous variable, while the others were considered endogenous, with organizational culture and school governance acting as mediators (Hair et al., 2018). The CI-BPL was measured using indicators of knowledge (Know), mindfulness (Mind), and behavior skills (BS) (Thomas & Inkson, 2017). Organizational culture was encapsulated by involvement (Invo), consistency (Cons), adaptability (Adap), and mission (Miss) (Denison et al., 2014; Wahyuningsih et al., 2019), whereas school governance was assessed through transparency (Tran), accountability (Acco), responsibility (Resp), independence (Inde), and fairness (Fair) (Svärd, 2017). Task performance indicators were school effectiveness improvement (HSEfe), efficiency (HSEfi), and conversion of resources into exceptional educational services (CRES) (Aguinis, 2018). Detailed in Appendix 1, CI-BPL and task performance each had nine attributes, while organizational culture and school governance included ten items each. The corrected item-total correlation (CI-TCC) values for CI-BPL, organizational culture, school governance, and task performance were between .546-.708, .428-.893, .543-.887, and .465-.816, respectively, with Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient (CAC) values of .877, .914, .938, and .873. These results indicated that all items and constructs had a CI-TCC greater than .361 (Widodo, 2021) and a CAC greater than .7, signifying satisfactory validity and reliability (Hair et al., 2018).

Participants

The study included 450 Indonesian junior high school teachers from seven provinces: East Nusa Tenggara, East Kalimantan, Riau Islands, Banten, Central Java, West Java, and Jakarta. The participants were incidentally sampled, based on their availability and willingness to complete an extensive questionnaire without any compensation (Widodo, 2021). In agreeing to participate, they consented to the use of their data for research and scientific publications. However, the primary limitation of incidental sampling is the potential for limited generalizability, especially when data distribution is uneven. According to Figure 1, the demographic breakdown of participants was predominantly female (68.89%), married (80.22%), within the age range of 26-35 years (35.33%), holders of a bachelor's degree (90%), and with less than 16 years of teaching experience (31.33%).

Profile Amount Percentage
Gender
Male 140 31.11
Female 310 68.89
Age
≤ 25 year 34 7.56
26 – 35 year 159 35.33
36 – 45 year 111 24.67
46 – 55 year 111 24.67
≥ 56 year 35 7.78
Education
Diploma (D3) 19 4.22
Bachelor (S1) 405 90
Postgraduate (S2) 26 5.78
Doctoral (S3) 0 0
Status
Married 361 80.22
Unmarried 89 19.78
Teaching Experience
≤ 5 year 127 28.22
6 – 10 year 83 18.44
11 – 15 year 99 22
≥ 16 year 141 31.33
Table 1.The Participants’ CharacteristicsSource: Calculated by the author

Data Analysis

Questionnaires employing a Likert scale typically generate interval data. For testing the hypotheses and the experimental model, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis was utilized, along with Sobel tests (Z), correlational, and descriptive tests. Descriptive statistics, including the mean and standard deviation, were used to describe the activity of each construct, while correlational tests assessed relationships between indicators. The Sobel test, as described by Abu-Bader and Jones (2021), examined the mediating relationships between latent variables. LisRel 8.80 and SPSS version 26 facilitated the SEM analysis and the descriptive/correlational tests, respectively.

Results

Descriptive and correlational analyses between indicators are presented in Table 2. The mean values for CI-BPL indicators were: Mind = 12.95, BS = 13.32, and Know = 13.40. Organizational Culture constructs had mean values of Invo = 8.47, Miss = 8.57, Adap = 12.47, and Cons = 12.62. For School Governance indicators, mean scores were: Inde = 8.17, Tran = 8.47, Fair = 8.78, Resp = 9.09, and Acco = 9.11. Task Performance constructs were scored as follows: HSEfi = 11.08, CRES = 12.46, and HSEfe = 12.81. The standard deviation (SD) values for CI-BPL indicators were: BS = 1.42, Mind = 1.43, and Know = 1.45, with Organizational Culture constructs being Miss = 1.53, Invo = 1.55, Cons = 2.17, and Adap = 2.30. School Governance indicators' SD scores were: Acco = 1.08, Resp = 1.12, Fair = 1.37, Tran = 1.47, and Inde = 1.53, while Task Performance constructs were: HSEfe = 1.61, CRES = 1.84, and HSEfi = 2.09. The results indicated that the mean value exceeded the SD score for each construct, suggesting good condition and appropriateness of the data used. The correlational analysis indicated a significant relationship at p < .01, demonstrating reciprocal associations among all constructs.

Figure 1.Standardized Structural Model

T values Structural Model

V M S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
CI-BPL
1. Know 13.40 1.449 1.00
2. Mind 12.95 1.429 .56** 1.00
3. BS 13.32 1.421 .95** .63** 1.00
Organizational Culture
4. Invo 8.47 1.552 .24** .27** .25** 1.00
5. Cons 12.62 2.167 .23** .30** .26** .79** 1.00
6. Adap 12.47 2.302 .23** .29** .25** .63** .75** 1.00
7. Miss 8.57 1.530 .27** .30** .28** .58** .69** .75** 1.00
S chool governance
8. Tran 8.47 1.470 .14** .15** .14** .46** .56** .50** .50** 1.00
9. Acco 9.11 1.080 .23** .17** .23** .34** .41** .37** .41** .51** 1.00
10. Resp 9.09 1.119 .26** .22** .28** .31** .42** .39** .39** .45** .68** 1.00
11. Inde 8.17 1.535 .14** .19** .13** .28** .35** .32** .29** .36** .29** .43** 1.00
12. Fair 8.78 1.371 .20** .19** .21** .53** .53** .45** .46** .56** .39** .44** .35** 1.00
Task Performance
13. TRGS 12.46 1.840 .27** .30** .29** .34** .38** .32** .33** .25** .23** .29** .32** .21** 1.00
14. Effe 12.81 1.611 .34** .35** .34** .44** .50** .46** .46** .33** .34** .33** .34** .32** .66** 1.00
15. Effi 11.08 2.086 .24** .32** .25** .28** .35** .36** .31** .24** .24** .19** .31** .20** .45** .54** 1.00
Table 2.Descriptive and Correlation Analysis Source: Calculated by the author. ** p < .01

Based on the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) presented in Table 3, the significance of any factor loading value (λ) greater than 0.3 with a t-value exceeding the critical value (1.65) was confirmed. The results indicated that all indicators were valid and capable of measuring their respective variables, as suggested by the analysis of Costello and Osborne (2005). Furthermore, when the values of construct reliability (CR) and variance extracted (VE) for all variables exceeded 0.70 and 0.50, respectively, the levels of convergence and reliability were considered good and acceptable (Hair et al., 2018).

Variable Indi's λ λ2 t value e CR AVE
CI-BPL Know .92 .85 24.66 .16 .74 .50
Mind .61 .37 14.28 .62
BS .56 .31 25.12 .73
Organizational Culture Invo .81 .66 20.35 .34 .90 .70
Cons .92 .85 24.61 .16
Adap .83 .69 21.11 .31
Miss .78 .61 19.14 .39
School Governance Tran .66 .44 14.45 .56 .80 .54
Acco .77 .59 17.66 .40
Resp .80 .64 18.41 .36
Inde .49 .24 10.10 .76
Fair .59 .35 12.65 .65
Task Performance CRES .74 .55 15.60 .45 .79 .57
HSEfe .89 .79 18.75 .20
HSEfi .60 .36 12.75 .64
Table 3.Results of Confirmatory Factor AnalysisSource: Calculated by the author

According to the goodness-of-fit (GOF) statistical analysis, eight of eleven criteria were considered good, namely: Goodness of Fit Index (.90 ≥ .90), Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (.08 ≤ .08), Normed Fit Index (.95 > .90), Non-Normed Fit Index (.95 ≥ .90), Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (.96 ≥ .90), Comparative Fit Index (.96 ≥ .90), Relative Fit Index (.94 ≥ .90), and Parsimony Normed Fit Index (.76 < 1). However, the remaining three criteria indicating a poor fit included the Chi-square (365.58 > 77.93), Significance Probability (.00 < .05), and Normed Chi-Square (3.59 > 3). The Chi-square test's poor fit suggests a sensitivity to large sample sizes over 200, as noted by Hair et al. (2018). Since the majority of the criteria tested met the thresholds for a good fit, the model's analysis outcomes were classified as fit.

In hypothesis testing, all the formulated statements were supported (significant) as illustrated in Table 4 and Figures 1 & 2, with significance levels at p = .01 and .05. The results indicated that CI-BPL had a significant and direct impact on organizational culture (γ = .29, p < .01), school governance (γ = .08, p < .05), and teacher task performance (γ = .20, p < .01). Furthermore, organizational culture directly affected school governance (β = .71, p < .01) and teacher task performance (β = .44, p < .01). Additionally, school governance had a significant and direct effect on teacher task performance (β = .15, p < .05). These findings empirically demonstrate that CI-BPL exerted a greater influence on organizational culture compared to teacher task performance and school governance. Organizational culture also had a significantly higher impact on school governance compared to teacher task performance. Moreover, organizational culture was a substantial contributor to teacher task performance compared to school governance.

# Hypothesis P. Coefficient t value Decision
H1 CI-BPL (X) on organizational culture (Y1) .29** 5.91 Supported
H2 CI-BPL (X) on school governance (Y2) .08* 2.00 Supported
H3 CI-BPL (X) on teacher task performance (Y3) .20** 4.37 Supported
H4 Organizational culture (Y1) on school governance (Y2) .71** 12.19 Supported
H5 Organizational culture (Y1) on teacher task performance (Y3) .44** 5.54 Supported
H6 School governance (Y2) on teacher task performance (Y3) .15* 1.84 Supported
Table 4.Hypothesis TestingSource: Calculated by the author. ** p < .01; * p < .05
Mediation E ffect P.Coefficient Z value Decision
CI-PBL (X) affects teacher task performance (Y3) through organizational culture (Y1). .13** 6.36 Supported
CI-PBL (X) affects teacher task performance (Y3) through school governance (Y1). .02** 5.23 Supported
Organizational culture (Y1) affects teacher task performance (Y3) through school governance (Y2). .11** 8.93 Supported
CI-BPL (X) on school governance (Y2) mediated by organizational culture (Y1) .21** 6.79 Supported
Table 5.Mediation Effect ResultsSource: Calculated by the author. ** p < .01

According to Table 5, CI-BPL affected teacher task performance through the mediation by organizational culture (β = .13, p < .01) and school governance (β = .02, p < .01). This was accompanied by the significant effects of organizational culture on teacher task performance, by the mediation of school governance (β = .11, p < .01). Meanwhile, CI-BPL affected school governance through the mediation by organizational culture (β = .21, p < .01). This explained that all serial mediating effects were significant and supported at p < 0.01, with organizational culture being a stronger mediator than school governance in the relationship between CI-BPL and teacher task performance.

Discussion

Based on the results, significant direct effects of CI-BPL on organizational culture, school governance, and teacher task performance were observed. These were complemented by the direct effects of organizational culture on school governance and teacher task performance, and school governance's direct impact on teacher task performance. Moreover, CI-BPL significantly influenced teacher task performance through mediation by organizational culture and school governance, along with the mediating effects of organizational culture on teacher task performance via school governance. CI-BPL also had a significant direct impact on school governance through organizational culture.

The results align with prior studies indicating that principals' cultural intelligence influenced leadership behaviors (Göksoy, 2017), business tradition (Kubicek et al., 2019; Gabel-Shemueli et al., 2019), and cross-cultural job satisfaction (Sozbilir & Yesil, 2016), but not with Aydin (2018), where organizational culture significantly impacted leadership styles. Empirically, CI-BPL supported the conduciveness of school culture, with principals effectively motivating teachers' class participation, consistency, adaptability, and academic mission. Furthermore, CI-BPL significantly affected school governance, aligning with Kusumawati (2020) regarding leadership's influence on GCG, Yuliastuti and Tandio (2020), and Mukhtaruddin et al. (2020), but not with Zahoor et al. (2022), where corporate governance influenced humble leadership. Principals with high cultural knowledge, awareness, and behavior skills significantly promoted school governance, emphasizing transparency, accountability, responsibility, independence, and fairness, underscoring CI as an important variable for principals in fostering GCG.

In terms of the impact of CI-BPL on teacher task performance, principals with high cultural knowledge, awareness, and behavior skills improved job efforts related to transforming raw materials into goods and services, thereby enhancing organizational effectiveness and efficiency. This empirical result is consistent with previous reports (Presbitero, 2020; Setti et al., 2022; Najm & Zaghari, 2020), but not with Lolowang et al. (2019), where leadership did not significantly affect employee performance.

As for organizational culture's influence on teacher task performance, it effectively motivated teachers to enhance work activities in schools with active participation, consistent attitudes and behaviors, high adaptability, and commitment to mission realization, improving the conversion of school resources into exceptional services. These results corroborate with previous reports (Bhardwaj, 2021; Algawazi et al., 2021; Kusumawati, 2020). Furthermore, the significant effect of school governance on teacher task performance indicated that adherence to GCG principles stimulated the enhancement of work activities, aiding the academic environment's effectiveness and efficiency, which was supported by previous studies (Gilang et al., 2018; Adnyana & Dewi, 2020) but not by Laili et al. (2019), where corporate governance was not effectively impacting performance. The influence of organizational culture on school governance reinforced Syofyan and Putra (2020), suggesting that GCG is enhanced by an organizational culture that actively adopts cultural values of commitment, continuity, adaptation, and mission, making it a critical determinant of school governance.

Organizational culture was found to mediate the effects of CI-BPL on teacher task performance, suggesting that school traditions become more conducive when principals have high cultural knowledge, awareness, and behavior skills, leading to solid involvement, consistency, adaptability, mission, and enhanced performance. This finding supports prior research indicating that CI-BPL influences organizational culture, which subsequently affects task performance (Göksoy, 2017; Gabel-Shemueli et al., 2019; Joseph & Kibera, 2019). Moreover, CI-BPL influenced task performance through the mediation of school governance, affirming that principals with adequate cultural competencies stimulate GCG, in line with prior analyses (Kusumawati, 2020; Mukhtaruddin et al., 2020; Khanifah et al., 2020; Musah & Adutwumwaa, 2021).

This research not only counters or supports findings from prior contradictory research and confirms the results of earlier research that formed the basis for developing the conceptual framework and hypotheses but also reveals new insights regarding the impact of CI-BPL on teachers' task performance mediated by organizational culture and school governance. These novel findings differentiate this research from previous studies, contributing to the development of a new empirical model on the impact of CI-BPL on teacher task performance, with mediation by organizational culture and school governance. It suggests that principals can improve CI-BPL capabilities through self-study and participation in relevant training or workshops that include intercultural communication. This result was supported by Sousa et al. (2019), where intercultural contact was a predictor significantly important in the development of cultural intelligence. The contact was also a cross-cultural communication occurring in a multicultural space, where shared meanings and values were established by transferring information among people having different cultural backgrounds, through symbolic, interpretative, transactional, and contextual processes (Hmala, 2023; Sorrells, 2020; Popescu, 2023). From the descriptions, intercultural communication should be considered a pillar of leadership for school principals. Organizational culture and school governance were also required through strategic approaches, policies, and real programs capable of increasing teacher task performance. This was specifically needed for the improvement of various work behaviors supporting organizational effectiveness and efficiency. Thus, using organizational culture and school governance as a mediation mechanism, the research findings offer a theoretical contribution to the development of teacher contextual performance as seen from the CI-BPL perspective. As one of the keystones of CI-BPL, this contribution can also be extended to the field of cultural communication studies.

Conclusion

In conclusion, leadership plays a critical role in the survival and success of organizations, especially within the educational sector through the lens of Cultural Intelligence-Based Principal Leadership (CI-BPL). This study assessed the impact of CI-BPL on organizational culture, school governance, and teacher task performance, contributing to the development of a new empirical model centered around mediation mechanisms. The findings confirmed that CI-BPL significantly influences organizational culture, school governance, and teacher task performance. Moreover, organizational culture and school governance were found to have a considerable direct impact on teacher task performance. Simultaneously, organizational culture had significant direct effects on school governance. It was also established that CI-BPL's influence on teacher task performance is mediated by organizational culture and school governance, and CI-BPL's impact on school governance is mediated through organizational culture.

Consequently, the research led to the formulation of a new empirical model demonstrating that CI-BPL affects teacher task performance through the mediating roles of organizational culture and school governance. This model suggests that school principals can enhance their CI-BPL capabilities by fostering improvements in school culture and governance through innovative strategic approaches, policies, and practical programs.

Future research endeavors should consider adapting, modifying, adopting, or further developing this empirical model while acknowledging the study's inherent limitations. These limitations include reliance on a single data source—employees—the use of select theoretical literature indicators, the exclusive application of quantitative methods, and the absence of controls for individual factors that may impact the research findings.

Acknowledgement statement: The authors would like to thank the reviewers for providing comments in helping this manuscript to completion.

Conflicts of interest: The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

CRediT author statement: W. Widodo and Jafriansen Damanik conceptualized the study, wrote, reviewed, and edited the manuscript. W. Widodo and Adolf Bastian developed the methodology. Formal analysis was performed by W. Widodo and C. Chandrawaty. The investigation was carried out by W. Widodo, Jafriansen Damanik, Adolf Bastian, C. Chandrawaty, and H. Sariyo. W. Widodo and Jafriansen Damanik wrote the original draft. Adolf Bastian and Harsono Sariyo worked on visualization. Project administration was managed by C. Chandrawaty. Finally, W. Widodo reviewed and edited the manuscript.

Funding: This research did not receive a specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or non-profit sections.

Ethical consideration statement: Not applicable. This study did not involve human and animal studies.

Data availability statement: Data is available at request. Please contact the corresponding author for any additional information on data access or usage.

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