The Interplay of Culture Mixing Aversion and Acculturative Flourishing: An Exploration among Mainland Chinese Sojourners in Hong Kong

Frank Tian-fang Ye (1), Emma E. Buchtel (2), Xiaozi Gao (3)
(1) Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong. , Hong Kong,
(2) Department of Psychology and Centre for Psychosocial Health, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, P.R.C. , Hong Kong,
(3) Department of Early Childhood Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, P.R.C. , Hong Kong

Abstract

This research investigates the impact of disgust towards culture mixing on acculturation and life satisfaction among mainland Chinese sojourners adapting to life in Hong Kong. In Study 1, drawing from previous research, we developed a measurement tool for assessing disgust towards mainland China-Hong Kong culture mixing and validated it in a sample of mainland Chinese students. We then conducted two longitudinal studies (Study 2 and 3) to examine the effects of disgust towards culture mixing on life satisfaction over 3-month and 6-month periods. Consistent with prior findings, our results showed that mainland Chinese sojourners perceived mixed cultural symbols as more disgusting compared to standalone ones. Cross-lagged analyses revealed that disgust towards culture mixing negatively predicted life satisfaction after 3 and 6 months of stay. Our findings indicate that initial disgust reactions towards culture mixing may have a causal influence on subsequent life satisfaction during the acculturation process. In conclusion, our study highlights the negative impact that disgust towards cultural mixing has on the acculturation process for Mainland Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong. The findings underscore the importance of promoting greater cultural awareness, understanding, and inclusiveness for the acculturative well-being of immigrants.

Full text article

Generated from XML file

References

Bao, Y., Zhao, Y., Xiao, Z., Liang, F., Wang, W., & Li, B. (2020). Fusion of “You and Me”: Cultural mixing promotes intergroup psychological compatibility. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 51(5), 353–369. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022120924129

Bauer, R. S. (2016). The Hong Kong Cantonese language: Current features and future prospects. Global Chinese, 2(2), 115–161. https://doi.org/10.1515/glochi-2016-0007

Beaujean, A. A. (2014). Sample size determination for regression models using Monte Carlo methods in R. Practical Assessment, Research, & Evaluation, 19, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.7275/d5pv-8v28

Bernardo, A. B. I., & Presbitero, A. (2017). Belief in polyculturalism and cultural intelligence: Individual- and country-level differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 119, 307–310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.08.006

Berry, J. W. (2006). Mutual attitudes among immigrants and ethnocultural groups in Canada. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(6), 719–734. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.06.004

Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 55(3), 303–332. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x

Cheon, B. K. (2019). The diversity of cultural diversity: Psychological consequences of different patterns of intercultural contact and mixing. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 22(1), 93–105. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajsp.12321

Cheon, B. K., Christopoulos, G. I., & Hong, Y. (2016). Disgust associated with culture mixing: Why and who? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(10), 1268–1285. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022116667845

Cheon, B. K., & Hong, Y.-Y. (2020). Aversive response towards culture fusion is moderated by the source of foreign cultural inflow. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 51(5), 370–386. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022120919994

Chiu, C.-Y., Mallorie, L., Keh, H. T., & Law, W. (2009). Perceptions of culture in multicultural space: Joint presentation of images from two cultures Increases in-group attribution of culture-typical characteristics. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40(2), 282–300. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022108328912

Chou, K.-L. (2012). Perceived discrimination and depression among new migrants to Hong Kong: The moderating role of social support and neighborhood collective efficacy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 138(1), 63–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.12.029

Cui, N., Xu, L., Wang, T., Qualls, W., & Hu, Y. (2016). How does framing strategy affect the evaluation of culturally mixed products? The self–other asymmetry effect. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(10), 1307–1320. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022116670513

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A.-G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41(4), 1149–1160. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.41.4.1149

Gu, M. M. (2011). ‘I am not qualified to be a Honkongese because of my accented Cantonese’: Mainland Chinese immigrant students in Hong Kong. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 32(6), 515–529. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2011.614350

Gibbons, J. P. (1983). Attitudes towards languages and code‐mixing in Hong Kong. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 4(2–3), 129–147. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1983.9994107

Hao, J., Li, D., Peng, L., Peng, S., & Torelli, C. J. (2016). Advancing our understanding of culture mixing. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(10), 1257–1267. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022116670514

Harush, R., Lisak, A., & Erez, M. (2016). Extending the global acculturation model to untangle the culture-mixing puzzle. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(10), 1395–1408. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022116670261

Hong, Y.-Y., Liao, H.-Y., Chan, G., Wong, R. Y. M., Chiu, C.-Y., Ip, G. W.-M., Fu, H.-Y., & Hansen, I. G. (2006). Temporal causal links between outgroup attitudes and social categorization: The case of Hong Kong 1997 transition. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 9(2), 265–288. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430206062081

Hong, Y.-Y, Morris, M. W., Chiu, C.-Y, & Benet-Martínez, V. (2000). Multicultural minds: A dynamic constructivist approach to culture and cognition. American Psychologist, 55(7), 709–720. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.7.709

Hue, M.-T. (2008). Cross-cultural experiences of immigrant students from mainland China in Hong Kong secondary schools. Ethnography and Education, 3(3), 229–242. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457820802305469

Hui, B. P. H., Chen, S. X., Leung, C. M., & Berry, J. W. (2015). Facilitating adaptation and intercultural contact: The role of integration and multicultural ideology in dominant and non-dominant groups. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 45, 70–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.01.002

JASP Team. (2018). JASP (Version 0.9.2)[Computer software]. https://jasp-stats.org/

Keh, H. T., Torelli, C. J., Chiu, C., & Hao, J. (2016). Integrative responses to culture mixing in brand name translations: The roles of product Self-Expressiveness and Self-Relevance of values among bicultural Chinese consumers. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(10), 1345–1360. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022116667843

Lam, S.-F., Chiu, C.-Y., Lau, I. Y.-M, Chan, W.-M., & Yim, P.-S. (2006). Managing intergroup attitudes among Hong Kong adolescents: Effects of social category inclusiveness and time pressure. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 9(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-839X.2006.00181.x

Lau, S. (1992). Collectivism’s individualism: Value preference, personal control, and the desire for freedom among Chinese in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Singapore. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(3), 361–366. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(92)90115-6

Lee, S. W. S., Oyserman, D., & Bond, M. H. (2010). Am I doing better than you? That depends on whether you ask me in English or Chinese: Self-enhancement effects of language as a cultural mindset prime. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(5), 785–791. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2010.04.005

Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. Guilford Press.

Morris, M. W., Chiu, C.-Y., & Liu, Z. (2015). Polycultural Psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 66(1), 631–659. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015001

Ng, I. F. S., Chou, K. L., & Wong, W. K. F. (2017). Perceived discrimination and integration among new arrivals from mainland China: Implications for higher education development for Hong Kong. In K. H. Mok (Ed.), Managing international connectivity, diversity of learning and changing labour markets: East Asian perspectives (pp. 187–198). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1736-0_11

Ng, T. K., Wang, K. W. C., & Chan, W. (2017). Acculturation and cross-cultural adaptation: The moderating role of social support. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 59, 19–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2017.04.012

Ngo, H.-Y., & Li, H. (2016). Cultural identity and adaptation of mainland Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong. American Behavioral Scientist, 60(5–6), 730–749. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764216632837

R Core Team. (2020). R: A language and environment for statistical computing [Computer Software]. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/

Rosseel, Y. (2012). Lavaan: An R package for structural equation modeling. Journal of Statistical Software, 48(2), 1-36. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v048.i02

Rottman, J., DeJesus, J. M., & Gerdin, E. (2018). The social origins of disgust. In N. Strohminger, & V. Kumar (Eds.), The moral psychology of disgust (pp. 27-52). Rowman & Littlefield.

Shi, Y., Shi, J., Luo, Y. L. L., & Cai, H. (2016). Understanding exclusionary reactions toward a foreign culture: The influence of intrusive cultural mixing on implicit intergroup bias. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(10), 1335–1344. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022116667844

Shokef, E., & Erez, M. (2015). Cultural intelligence and global identity in multicultural teams. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of Cultural Intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications (pp. 196–210). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315703855

Torelli, C. J., Chiu, C.-Y., Tam, K., Au, A. K. C., & Keh, H. T. (2011). Exclusionary reactions to foreign cultures: Effects of simultaneous exposure to cultures in globalized space. Journal of Social Issues, 67(4), 716–742. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2011.01724.x

Yahuda, M. (1996). Differences between the Hong Kong and Chinese systems. In Hong Kong, China’s Challenge (pp.184–297). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315800134

Yang, D. Y.-J., Chen, X., Xu, J., Preston, J. L., & Chiu, C.-Y. (2016). Cultural symbolism and spatial separation: Some ways to deactivate exclusionary responses to culture mixing. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(10), 1286–1293. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022116665169

Ye, F. T.-F., & Buchtel, E. E. (2021). Multiculturalism, culture mixing, and prejudice: Effects of priming Chinese diversity models among Hong Kong university students. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 691858. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.691858

Yu, B., & Zhang, K. (2016). ‘It’s more foreign than a foreign country’: Adaptation and experience of mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong. Tertiary Education and Management, 22(4), 300–315. https://doi.org/10.1080/13583883.2016.1226944

Authors

Frank Tian-fang Ye
frank.ye@polyu.edu.hk (Primary Contact)
Emma E. Buchtel
Xiaozi Gao
Author Biographies

Frank Tian-fang Ye, Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

Dr. Frank Tian-fang Ye is currently a Research Assistant Professor in the Department of Applied Social Sciences at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. His primary research interest concerns psychometrics and cross-cultural studies. His areas of expertise include research methods and advanced statistics. As an earlier career researcher, Frank’s main lines of empirical research focus on measuring individual differences in cultural perceptions, stigmatised identities, and dehumanisation towards minorities .

Emma E. Buchtel, Department of Psychology and Centre for Psychosocial Health, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, P.R.C.

Dr. Emma E. Buchtel is an Associate Professor and the Associate Head of International Engagement in the Department of Psychology at the Education University of Hong Kong. Dr. Buchtel's academic focus revolves around examining the intersection of Chinese cultural influences and psychology, specifically delving into areas such as moral concepts, values, motivation, and reasoning styles. Her work is distinctive for its emphasis on understanding the cultural uniqueness of these elements and their implications for Western theoretical frameworks. A proponent of interdisciplinary methods, Dr. Buchtel adeptly combines psychophysiological data, qualitative research, quantitative surveys, and experimental approaches in her studies.

Xiaozi Gao, Department of Early Childhood Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, P.R.C.

Dr. Xiaozi Gao is a research assistant professor in the Department of Early Childhood Education at The Education University of Hong Kong. Specializing in early childhood development, her research primarily focuses on the social and cognitive growth of children during their formative years. Dr. Gao is particularly interested in exploring the dynamics of household environments and family processes and how these factors intricately influence early childhood development. Additionally, her expertise extends to conducting cross-cultural studies, allowing for a broader understanding of developmental variations and similarities across different cultural contexts.

Ye, F. T.- fang, Buchtel, E. E., & Gao, X. (2024). The Interplay of Culture Mixing Aversion and Acculturative Flourishing: An Exploration among Mainland Chinese Sojourners in Hong Kong. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 24(1), 18–27. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v24i1.245

Article Details

Smart Citations via scite_
Views
  • Abstract 712
  • Download PDF 83
  • XML 0