Do Comparable Company-Assigned and Self-Initiated Expatriates Exhibit Boundaryless or Traditional Career Orientations? A Case of International Expatriates Drawn from the Saudi Banking Sector.

Saeed T. Alshahrani (1)
(1) a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:49:"Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU)";}, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Purpose of the Study: This study aimed to investigate differences in dominant career orientations between SIEs and AEs.


Theoretical framework: Schein’s career anchor model is used to investigate if a comparable sample of SIEs and AEs drawn from the banking sector in Saudi Arabia exhibits traditional and/or boundaryless career orientations.


Design/methodology/approach: Data from 418 expatriates working within the Saudi banking sector is analyzed to understand how the career orientations of SIEs and AEs differ.


Findings: Compared to AEs, SIEs were found to be more oriented to traditional career anchors characterized by technical/functional competence and security/stability.


Research, Practical & Social implications: This study makes an important contribution to existing knowledge on SIE orientations by identifying differences that exist between traditional and boundaryless careers. The findings reveal differences between SIEs and AEs regarding their technical/functional competence, security/stability, lifestyle, and pure challenge career anchors.


Originality/value: This quantitative study reveals factors that impact organizationally and individually managed careers in different directions. Therefore, this study presents a clear distinction between the two career orientations and argues the two can be viewed through the lenses of boundaryless and/or traditional career perspectives.

Full text article

Generated from XML file

References

Adler, N. J., & Bartholomew, S. (1992), ''Managing globally competent people'', Executive (19389779), 6(3), pp. 52-65.

Al Ariss, A. (2014), ''Voicing experiences and perceptions of local managers: expatriation in the Arab Gulf'', The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(14), pp. 1978-1994.

Al Ariss, A., & Özbilgin, M. (2010), ''Understanding self-initiated expatriates: career experiences of Lebanese self-initiated expatriates in France'', Thunderbird International Business Review, 52(4), pp. 275-285.

Alshahrani, S. T., & Morley, M. (2015), ''Accounting for variations in the patterns of mobility among conventional and self-initiated expatriates'', The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(15), pp. 1936-1954.

Alshahrani, S. (2023). Determinants of Self-Initiated Expatriates Resilience: Conceptual Framework and Research Propositions. In Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Organizational Resilience During Unprecedented Times (pp. 459-478). IGI Global.

Alshahrani, S. T. (2022). The motivation for the mobility–A comparison of the company assigned and self-initiated expatriates in Saudi Arabia. Cogent Social Sciences, 8(1), 2027626.

Andersen, T. (2014), ''Employment and family conditions for Danish expatriated engineers'', GSTF Journal of Psychology, 1(1), pp. 1-6.

Andresen, M., Bergdolt, F., Margenfeld, J., & Dickmann, M. (2014), ''Addressing international mobility confusion–developing definitions and differentiations for self-initiated and assigned expatriates as well as migrants'', The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(16), pp. 2295-2318.

Andresen, M., Biemann, T., & Pattie, M. W. (2015), ''What makes them move abroad? Reviewing and exploring differences between self-initiated and assigned expatriation'', International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(7), pp. 932-947. doi:10.1080/09585192.2012.669780

Andresen, M., Pattie, M. W., & Hippler, T. (2020). What does it mean to be a ‘self-initiated’expatriate in different contexts? A conceptual analysis and suggestions for future research. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 31(1), 174-201.

Arthur, M. B. (1994), ''The boundaryless career: a new perspective for organizational inquiry'', Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(4), pp. 295-306.

Arthur, M. B. (2008), ''Examining contemporary careers: a call for interdisciplinary inquiry'', Human Relations, 61(2), pp. 163-186.

Arthur, M. B., Hall, D. T., & Lawrence, B. S. (1989), Handbook of career theory, Cambridge University Press.

Arthur, M. B., & Rousseau, D. M. (1996), The Boundaryless Career: A New Employment Principle for a New Organizational Era, Oxford University Press: New York.

Aycan, Z., & Kanungo, R. (1997), ''Current issues and future challenges in expatriate management'', New approaches to employee management, 4, pp. 245-260.

Baruch, Y. (2004a), Managing Careers: Theory and Practice, Pearson: Harlow.

Baruch, Y. (2004b), ''Transforming careers: from linear to multidirectional career paths: organizational and individual perspectives'', Career development international, 9(1), pp. 58-73.

Baruch, Y. (2006), ''Career development in organizations and beyond: balancing traditional and contemporary viewpoints'', Human Resource Management Review, 16(2), pp. 125-138.

Biemann, T., & Andresen, M. (2010), ''Self-initiated foreign expatriates versus assigned expatriates: two distinct types of international careers?'', Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(4), pp. 430-448.

Bonache, J., Brewster, C., & Suutari, V. (2007), ''Preface: knowledge, international mobility, and careers'', International Studies of Management and Organization, 37(3), pp. 3-15.

Bonache, J., Brewster, C., Suutari, V., & Cerdin, J. L. (2017), ''The changing nature of expatriation'', Thunderbird International Business Review, 0(0).

Brandstätter, H. (1997), ''Becoming an entrepreneur — a question of personality structure?'', Journal of Economic Psychology, 18(2–3), pp. 157-177.

Bravo, J., Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., Wayne, S. J., & Liden, R. C. (2017), ''Measuring Career Orientations in the Era of the Boundaryless Career'', Journal of Career Assessment, 25(3), pp. 502-525.

Brousseau, K. R., Driver, M. J., Eneroth, K., & Larson, R. (1996), ''Career pandemonium: Realigning organizations and individuals'', The Academy of Management Executive, 10(4), pp. 52-66.

Budhwar, P., Tung, R. L., Varma, A., & Do, H. (2017), ''Developments in Human Resource Management in MNCs from BRICS Nations: A Review and Future Research Agenda'', Journal of International Management, 23(2), pp. 111-123.

Cao, L., Hirschi, A., & Deller, J. (2012), ''Self-initiated expatriates and their career success'', Journal of Management Development, 31(2), pp. 159-172.

Cerdin, J.-L. (2008), ''Careers and expatriation'', International human resource management: A European perspective,pp. 192-216.

Cerdin, J.-L. (2012), ‘Motivation of Self-Initiated Expatriates,’ in Self-Initiated Expatriation: Individual, Organizational, and National Perspectives, eds. M. Andresen, A. Al Ariss, and M. Walther, New York: Routledge, pp. 59 –74.

Cerdin, J.-L., & Dickmann, M. (2011), ''Expatriation success in an inter-governmental organization'', Academy of Management Proceedings, 2011(1), pp. 1-6.

Cerdin, J.-L., & Pargneux, M. L. (2008). Career Anchors and motivation: a comparison between self-initiated expatriates and organization assigned expatriates. Paper presented at the EIASM Workshop on Expatriation, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.

Cerdin, J.-L., & Pargneux, M. L. (2010), ''Career anchors: a comparison between organization-assigned and self-initiated expatriates'', Thunderbird International Business Review, 52(4), pp. 287-299.

Cerdin, J.-L., & Selmer, J. (2014), ''Who is a self-initiated expatriate? Towards conceptual clarity of a common notion'', The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(9), pp. 1281-1301.

Chan, K. Y., Uy, M. A., Moon-ho, R. H., Sam, Y. L., Chernyshenko, O. S., & Yu, K. Y. T. (2015). Comparing two career adaptability measures for career construction theory: Relations with boundaryless mindset and protean career attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 87, 22–31. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2014.11.006

Coetzee, M., & Schreuder, D. (2009), ''Using the career orientations inventory (COI) for measuring internal career orientations in the South African organisational context'', SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 35, pp. 99-111.

Coetzee, M., & Schreuder, D. (2011), ''The relation between career anchors, emotional intelligence and employability satisfaction among workers in the service industry'', Southern African Business Review, 15(3), pp. 76-97.

Colakoglu, S. N. (2011), ''The impact of career boundarylessness on subjective career success: the role of career competencies, career autonomy, and career insecurity'', Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(1), pp. 47-59.

Collings, D. G., Scullion, H., & Morley, M. J. (2007), ''Changing patterns of global staffing in the multinational enterprise: challenges to the conventional expatriate assignment and emerging alternatives'', Journal of World Business, 42(2), pp. 198-213. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2007.02.005

Copeland, A. P., & Norell, S. K. (2002), ''Spousal adjustment on international assignments: the role of social support'', International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26(3),pp. 255-272.

Costigan, R., Gurbuz, S., & Sigri, U. (2016), ''Schein’s Career Anchors: testing factorial validity, invariance across countries, and relationship with core self-evaluations'', Journal of Career Development, 0(0), pp. 1-16.

Danziger, N., Rachman-Moore, D., & Valency, R. (2008), ''The construct validity of Schein's career anchors orientation inventory'', Career development international, 13(1), pp. 7-19.

Danziger, N., & Valency, R. (2006), ''Career anchors: distribution and impact on job satisfaction, the Israeli case'', Career development international, 11(4), pp. 293-303.

De Vries, M. F. R. K. (1977), ''The entrepreneurial personality: a person at the crossroads'', Journal of Management Studies, 14(1), pp. 34-57.

Defillippi, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1994), ''The boundaryless career: a competency-based perspective'', Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(4), pp. 307-324. doi:10.2307/2488429

DeFillippi, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1996), ''Boundaryless contexts and careers: A competency-based perspective'', The boundaryless career: A new employment principle for a new organizational era, pp. 116-131.

DeLong, T. J. (1982), ''Reexamining the career anchor model'', Personnel, 59(3), pp. 50-61.

Dickmann, M., Doherty, N., Mills, T., & Brewster, C. (2008), ''Why do they go? Individual and corporate perspectives on the factors influencing the decision to accept an international assignment'', The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(4), pp. 731-751.

Dickmann, M., Suutari, V., Brewster, C., Mäkelä, L., Tanskanen, J., & Tornikoski, C. (2016), ''The career competencies of self-initiated and assigned expatriates: assessing the development of career capital over time'', The International Journal of Human Resource Management, pp. 1-25.

Doherty, N., Dickmann, M., & Mills, T. (2011), ''Exploring the motives of company-backed and self-initiated expatriates'', The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(3), pp. 595-611.

Dries, N., Pepermans, R., & De Kerpel, E. (2008), ''Exploring four generations' beliefs about career: is “satisfied” the new “successful”?'', Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(8), pp. 907-928.

Fee, A., & Karsaklian, E. (2013), ''Could international volunteers be considered ethical consumers? A cross-discipline approach to understanding motivations of self-Initiated expatriates, In V. Vaiman & A. Haslberger (Eds.), Talent Management of Self-Initiated Expatriates: A Neglected Source of Global Talent, Palgrave Macmillan: Hampshire, pp. 88-116.

Feldman, D. C., & Bolino, M. C. (1996), ''Careers within careers: reconceptualizing the nature of career anchors and their consequences'', Human Resource Management Review, 6(2), pp. 89-112.

Feldman, D. C., & Bolino, M. C. (2000), ''Career patterns of the self-employed: career motivations and career outcomes'', Journal of Small Business Management, 38(3), pp. 53-67.

Fitzgerald, C., & Howe-Walsh. (2009), ''Self-initiated expatriates: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of professional female expatriates '', International Journal of Business and Management, 3(10), pp. 153-175.

Farcas, D., & Gonçalves, M. (2016). Do three years make a difference? An updated review and analysis of self-initiated expatriation. SpringerPlus, 5(1), 1-25.

GAS. (2020), ''Manpower Population 4rth Q 2020, Retrieved from https://www.stats.gov.sa/sites/default/files/LM_Q4%202020%20%28Press%20release_AR%29_1.pdf, (accessed 1 April 2020).

Girgis, M., Handoussa, H., & Tzannatos, Z. (2002), ''National versus migrant workers in the GCC: coping with change, In H. Handoussa & T. Zafiris (Eds.), Employment Creation and Social Protection in the Middle East and North Africa,American University in Cairo Press: Cairo, Eygpt, pp.

Guo, C., Porschitz, E., & Alves, J. (2013). Exploring career agency during self-initiated repatriation: a study of Chinese sea turtles. Career Development International, 18(1): 34 - 55.

Hall, D. T. (1996), ''Protean careers of the 21st Century'', The Academy of Management Executive, 10(4), pp. 8-16.

Harvey, M. G. (1985), ''The executive family: an overlooked variable in international assignments'', The International Executive, 27(3), pp. 15-16.

Harzing, A.-W. (2001), ''An analysis of the functions of international transfer of managers in MNCs'', Employee Relations, 23(6), pp. 581-598.

Haslberger, A., & Vaiman, V. (2013). Self-initiated expatriates: A neglected source of the global talent flow. In Talent management of self-initiated expatriates (pp. 1-15). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Hays, R. D. (1971), ''Ascribed behavioral determinants of success-failure among U. S. expatriate managers'', Journal of International Business Studies, 2(1), pp. 40-46.

Holland, J. L. (1973), Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Careers (Vol. 37), Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Hudson, S., & Inkson, K. (2006), ''Volunteer overseas development workers: the hero's adventure and personal transformation'', Career development international, 11(4), pp. 304-320.

Hussain, T., & Deery, S. (2018), ''Why do self-initiated expatriates quit their jobs: the role of job embeddedness and shocks in explaining turnover intentions'', International Business Review, 27(1), pp. 281-288.

Igbaria, M., & Baroudi, J. J. (1993), ''A short-form measure of career orientations: a psychometric evaluation'', Journal of Management Information Systems, 10(2), pp. 131-154.

Igbaria, M., Greenhaus, J. H., & Parasuraman, S. (1991), ''Career orientations of MIS employees: an empirical analysis'', MIS Quarterly, 15(2), pp. 151-169. doi:10.2307/249376

IMF. (2017), ''This financial system stability assessment paper on Saudi Arabia, Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/ns/search.aspx?NewQuery=saudi+arabia&submit=, (accessed 1 April 2018).

Inkson, K., Arthur, M. B., Pringle, J., & Barry, S. (1997), ''Expatriate assignment versus overseas experience: contrasting models of international human resource development'', Journal of World Business, 32(4), pp. 351-368.

Inkson, K., & Myers, B. A. (2003), ''The big OE self-directed travel and career development'', Career development international, 8(4), pp. 170-181.

Jokinen, T., Brewster, C., & Suutari, V. (2008), ''Career capital during international work experiences: contrasting self-initiated expatriate experiences and assigned expatriation'', International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(6), pp. 979-998.

King, Z. (2003), ''New or traditional careers? A study of UK graduates' preferences'', Human Resource Management Journal, 13(1), pp. 5-26.

Kuron, L. K. J., Schweitzer, L., Lyons, S., & Ng, E. S. W. (2016), ''Career profiles in the “new career”: evidence of their prevalence and correlates'', Career development international, 21(4), pp. 355-377.

Lazarova, M., Cerdin, J.-L., & Liao, Y. (2014), ''The internationalism career anchor'', International Studies of Management & Organization, 44(2), pp. 9-33.

Lazarova, M., Westman, M., & Shaffer, M. A. (2010), ''Elucidating the positive side of the work-family interface on international assignments: a model of expatriate work and family performance'', Academy of Management Review, 35(1),pp. 93-117.

Lee, C. H. (2005), ''A study of underemployment among self-initiated expatriates'', Journal of World Business, 40(2),pp. 172-187.

Lee, C. H. (2005), ''A study of underemployment among self-initiated expatriates'', Journal of World Business, 40(2), pp. 172-187.

Lee , S. H., & Wong, P. K. (2004), ''An exploratory study of technopreneurial intentions: a career anchor perspective'', Journal of Business Venturing, 19(1), pp. 7-28.

Leong, F. T. L., Rosenberg, S. D., & Chong, S. (2014), ''A psychometric evaluation of Schein’s (1985) career orientations inventory'', Journal of Career Assessment, 22(3), pp. 524-538.

Lin, C. Y.-Y., Lu, T.-C., & Lin, H.-W. (2012), ''A different perspective of expatriate management'', Human Resource Management Review, 22(3), pp. 189-207.

Low, M. B., & MacMillan, I. C. (1988), ''Entrepreneurship: Past research and future challenges'', Journal of Management, 14(2), pp. 139-161.

Lyons, S. T., Schweitzer, L., & Ng, E. S. (2015), ''How have careers changed? An investigation of changing career patterns across four generations'', Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(1),pp. 8-21.

Marshall, V., & Bonner, D. (2003), ''Career anchors and the effects of downsizing: implications for generations and cultures at work. A preliminary investigation'', Journal of European Industrial Training, 27(6), pp. 281-291.

McKenna, S., & Richardson, J. (2016). Self-initiated expatriation: Changing the ontological and methodological box. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 11(3), 150–168.

McNulty, Y. (2013), ''Are self-initiated expatriates born or made? exploring the relationship between SIE orientation and individual ROI, In V. Vaiman & A. Haslberger (Eds.), Talent Management of Self-Initiated Expatriates: A Neglected Source of Global Talent, Palgrave Macmillan: Hampshire, pp. 30-58.

McNulty, Y., & Brewster, C. (2017), ''Theorizing the meaning (s) of ‘expatriate’: establishing boundary conditions for business expatriates'', The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(1), pp. 27-61.

McNulty, Y., & Brewster, C. (2018), ''Management of (business) expatriates Organizational Behaviour and Human Resource Management, Springer, pp. 109-137.

McNulty, Y., & Vance, C. (2017), ''Dynamic global careers: a new conceptualization of expatriate career paths'', Personnel Review, 46(2), pp. 205-221.

Mellahi, K. (2007), ''The effect of regulations on HRM: private sector firms in Saudi Arabia'', International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(1), pp. 85-99.

Miao, R., Bozionelos, N., Zhou, W., & Newman, A. (2020). High-performance work systems and key employee attitudes: the roles of psychological capital and an interactional justice climate. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1-35.

Michel, T., Jacqueline, D., & Martina, G. (2014), ''The mediating influence of career success in the relationship between career mobility criteria, career anchors and satisfaction with organization'', Personnel Review, 43(6),pp. 818-844.

Mignonac, K., & Herrbach, O. (2003), ''Managing individual career aspirations and corporate needs: a study of software engineers in France'', Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 20(3), pp. 205-230. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0923-4748(03)00019-5

MOL. (2018), ''Statistics and figures, Retrieved from https://mlsd.gov.sa/sites/default/files/uploads/v.26%20التقرير%20السنوي%202016.pdf, (accessed March 19, 2018).

Myers, B., & Pringle, J. K. (2005), ''Self-initiated foreign experience as accelerated development: influence of gender'', Journal of World Business, 40(4), pp. 421-431.

Naithani, P., & Jha, A. N. (2010), ''Challenges faced by expatriate workers in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries'', International Journal of Business and Management, 5(1), pp. 89-103.

Nolan, E. M., & Morley, M. J. (2013), ''A test of the relationship between person-environment fit and cross-cultural adjustment among self-initiated expatriates'', The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(11), pp. 1631-1649.

Parker, P., & Inkson, K. (1999), ''New forms of career: The challenge to human resource management'', Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 37(1), pp. 76-85.

Pate, J., & Scullion, H. (2009), ''The changing nature of the traditional expatriate psychological contract'', Employee Relations, 32(1), pp. 56-73.

Phyllis, T. (2013), ''Self-initiated expatriates: an alternative to company-assigned expatriates?'', Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, 1(3), pp. 336-356.

Pucik, V., & Saba, T. (1998), ''Selecting and developing the global versus the expatriate manager: a review of the state-of-the-art'', Human Resource Planning, 21(4), pp. 40-54.

Rahman, M. (2011), ''Does labour migration bring about economic advantage? a case of Bangladeshi migrants in Saudi Arabia'', SSRN eLibrary, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1938168 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1938168

Ramaswami, A., Carter, N. M., & Dreher, G. F. (2016). Expatriation and career success: A human capital perspective. Human relations, 69(10), 1959-1987.

Reuters, T. (2018), ''TEXT-S&P affirms Saudi Arabia's ratings, Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/fitch-affirms-saudi-arabia-at-a-outlook/fitch-affirms-saudi-arabia-at-a-outlook-stable-idUSFit1VCsS0, (accessed March 19, 2018).

Richardson, J., & Mallon, M. (2005), ''Career interrupted? The case of the self-directed expatriate'', Journal of World Business, 40(4), pp. 409-420.

Rodriguez, J. K., & Scurry, T. (2014), ''The global talent challenge of self-initiated expatriates, In A. Al Ariss (Ed.), Global Talent Management, Springer: London, pp. 93-105.

SAMA. (2018), ''Yearly Statistics, Retrieved from http://www.sama.gov.sa/en-US/EconomicReports/Pages/YearlyStatistics.aspx, (accessed March 19, 2018).

Schein, E.H. (1974), Career Anchors and Career Paths: A Panel Study of Management and School Graduates, Technical Report No. 1, Sloan School of Management, MIT, Cambridge, MA.

Schein, E. H. (1978), Career Dynamics: Matching Individual and Organizational Needs, Addison-Wesley: Reading, Mass; London.

Schein, E. H. (1984), ''Coming to a new awareness of organizational culture'', Sloan management review, 25(2), pp. 3-16.

Schein, E. H. (1986), ''What you need to know about organizational culture'', Training & Development Journal, 40(1), pp. 30-33.

Schein, E. H. (1987), ''Individuals and careers, In J. W. Lorsch (Ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behavior, Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 155-171.

Schein, E. H. (1990), Career Anchors: Discovering Your Real Values (Revised ed.), Pfeiffer & Company: San Diego, CA.

Schein, E. H. (1996), ''Career anchors revisited: Implications for career development in the 21st Century'', Academy of Management Executive, 10(4), pp. 80-88.

Scullion, H. (1994), ''Staffing policies and strategic control in British multinationals'', International Studies of Management & Organization, 24(3), pp. 86-104.

Scurry, T., Blenkinsopp, J., & Hay, A. (2013), ''Global careers: perspectives from the United Kingdom, In C. Reis & Y. Baruch (Eds.), Careers without borders: Critical perspectives, Routledge: Abingdon, pp. 31-54.

Selmer, J. (1999), ''Corporate expatriate career development'', Journal of International Management, 5(1), pp. 55-71.

Selmer, J., & Lauring, J. (2011), ''Acquired demographics and reasons to relocate among self-initiated expatriates'', International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(10), pp. 2055-2070.

Shaffer, M. A., & Harrison, D. A. (1998), ''Expatriates' psychological withdrawal from international assignments: work, nonwork, and family influences'', Personnel Psychology, 51(1), pp. 87-118.

Stahl, G. K., Miller, E. L., & Tung, R. L. (2002), ''Toward the boundaryless career: a closer look at the expatriate career concept and the perceived implications of an international assignment'', Journal of World Business, 37(3), pp. 216-227.

Suutari, V. (2003), ''Global managers: Career orientation, career tracks, life‐style implications and career commitment'', Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(3), pp. 185-207.

Suutari, V., & Brewster, C. (2000), ''Making their own way: the international experience through self-initiated foreign assignments'', Journal of World Business, 35(4), pp. 417-436.

Suutari, V., Brewster, C., & Dickmann, M. (2018). Contrasting assigned expatriates and self-initiated expatriates: a review of extant research and a future research agenda. The management of global careers, 63-89.

Suutari, V., Brewster, C., Mäkelä, L., Dickmann, M., & Tornikoski, C. (2018), ''The effect of international work experience on the career success of expatriates: a comparison of assigned and self‐initiated expatriates'', Human Resource Management, 57(1), pp. 37-54.

Suutari, V., Brewster, C., & Tornikoski, C. (2013), ''The careers of self-initiated expatriates, In V. Vaiman & A. Haslberger (Eds.), Talent Management of Self-Initiated Expatriates: A Neglected Source of Global Talent, 10.1057/9780230392809_8, Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, pp. 159-180.

Suutari, V., & Burch, D. (2001), ''The role of on‐site training and support in expatriation: existing and necessary host‐company practices'', Career development international, 6(6), pp. 298-311.

Suutari, V., & Taka, M. (2004), ''Career anchors of managers with global careers'', Journal of Management Development, 23(9), pp. 833-847.

Tharenou, P. (2010), ''Women’s self-initiated expatriation as a career option and its ethical issues'', Journal of Business Ethics, 95(1), pp. 73-88.

Tharenou, P., & Harvey, M. (2006), ''Examining the overseas staffing options utilized by Australian headquartered multinational corporations'', The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(6), pp. 1095-1114

Torbiörn, I. (1997), ''Staffing for international operations'', Human Resource Management Journal, 7(3), pp. 42-51.

Tung, R. L. (1987), ''Expatriate assignments: enhancing success and minimizing failure'', The Academy of Management Executive, 1(2), pp. 117-125.

Tung, R. L. (1998), ''American expatriates abroad: from neophytes to cosmopolitans'', Journal of World Business, 33(2), pp. 125-144.

USDC. (2012), ''Distribution and sales channels, Retrieved from http://www.the-saudi.net/saudi-arabia/marketing_us.htm, (accessed April 22, 2012).

Yarnall, J. (1998), ''Career anchors: results of an organisational study in the UK'', Career development international, 3(2), pp. 56-61.

Yavas, U., Luqmani, M., & Quraeshi, Z. (1990), ''Organisational commitment, job satisfaction, work values: Saudi and expatriate managers'', Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 11(7), pp. 3-10.

Authors

Saeed T. Alshahrani
stshahrani@imamu.edu.sa (Primary Contact)
Alshahrani, S. T. Do Comparable Company-Assigned and Self-Initiated Expatriates Exhibit Boundaryless or Traditional Career Orientations? A Case of International Expatriates Drawn from the Saudi Banking Sector . Journal of Intercultural Communication, 24(3). https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v24i3.887

Article Details

Funding data

Smart Citations via scite_