Image files must not be altered in any way that might cause the information provided by the original image to be misinterpreted. The following are examples of irregular manipulation: 1) adding features to the original image, enhancing them, moving them, or removing them; 2) grouping images that should be presented separately (for example, from different regions of the same gel or from different gels); or 3) altering the contrast, brightness, or color balance to hide, cover-up, or enhance some information. During the peer review process, if questionable image manipulation is found and verified, we reserve the right to reject the manuscript. After publication, if unexplained image manipulation is discovered and verified, we may update or retract the paper.

Citation Policy: Where the material is taken from other sources (including their own published writing), authors should ensure that the source is clearly cited and that appropriate permission is obtained.

  • Authors should avoid excessive self-citation of their work.
  • If the author has not read the cited work, he or she should not copy references from other publications.
  • Authors should not preferentially cite their own or the publications of their friends, peers, or institutions.
  • Advertisements or advertorial material should not be cited by authors.

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