Women in Society Through the Aspect of Language

1. Introduction

Languages employ us as much as we employ language. In the same way that the concepts we wish to express influence the forms of expression we choose, our feelings about objects in the real world also influence how we express ourselves about them. Men’s and women’s speech patterns are becoming fascinating subjects of study. Men and women can use language in different ways in some situations. These might be results in the form of vocabulary and Non-verbal differences. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to give linguistic support for one type of inequality that has been said to exist in our society: the inequality between the roles of men and women. To find out what language use can tell us about the type and severity of any inequality and if there is anything that can be done to address the linguistic side of the issue: Can linguistic inequality be used to address social inequality? We will discover that women encounter linguistic inequality in two different contexts: how they are trained to use language and how people generally speak to them.

In common, gender is defined based on the social factors of a person as their position, behaviour, social role in society, and so on. It is determined that sex and gender are not similar and differ in biological and social features, respectively. The concepts of language and women are also debated in the field of feminism (Malinowska, 2020). Women are strong fighters in recent days who surpass in all fields and prove that gender is just a matter of representing their birth. After a long struggle, many women have started to fight for basic needs (Swirsky & Angelone, 2020).

Women empowerment is established by taking the views of a woman (David, 2018; Korac, 2018). In general, gender is specified to represent the person’s behaviour as a male or female. The concept of women’s empowerment is not the same; they demonstrate the equality of men and women and improve the involvement of women in all fields that exist in our society respectively (Faulkner, 2018). Hereby both concepts follow the key goal of enhancing women’s lives in this world without any fear or hesitation. Women are grown-ups bold enough to come up with their skills and excel in any industry. Women are always treated as lower than their self-esteem, and the act of speaking out is wider to bring gender equality.

The study demonstrates a comparison of language and women for better understanding that contributes to the analysis. Language and women were discussed in the year 1990 in France, and later, it has also become significant for people speaking the English language.

The use of language has an impact on affecting gender, and here is an example of it. To respect a person, each one is labelled on all social databases. Let the title for an adult woman before marriage is represented as ‘Miss’ and after marriage is ‘Mrs’ in American English. In

contrast, the title for a man is always ‘Mr’. A woman's marital status is updated, while a man’s marital status is not updated by changing any title. It is predicted that no women are interested in exposing their current status as single or married for any advertising which looks like advertising themselves.

A. Objectives

The objectives of this paper are,

● To discuss the representation of thoughts and the importance of gender concerning language.

● To identify the future of women in gender equality and the influence of language.

B. Organization

This paper is organized as follows: Section II demonstrates the literature review, section III explains the research methodology, section IV discusses the research questions observed on language and women, and finally, section V concludes the concept of this paper.

2. Literature Review

In this section, the previously discussed research works on the topic of language and women. Language is defined to act as a semiotic tool that demonstrates knowledge and values (Malinowska, 2020). It creates a sense of social interaction; hence language plays a vital role in this social life (Alvanoudi, 2018; Streufert, 2020). Commonly, the Greek and Indo-European languages have two or three class systems in which the nouns of gender for representing humans are referred to concerning the sex of a person (Streufert, 2020). Language and women have been studied in psycholinguistics, cognitive and social psychology (Koch et al., 2022).

The representation of gender as male or female is based on symmetrical representation. Whereas the structural properties in the Greek language are not practical. The use of feminine and masculine in terms of nouns is in non-economical practices while writing as well as speaking (Wright & Delgado, 2023). The common talks between people will generally use two different grammatical gender works without using a single grammatical gender, which enables minimizing the length of communication.

In the English language, the representation of a group of people will be ‘They/ Them’, which does not separately highlight any female or male. The women’s gender is detailed in poetry to show the best part of women (Faulkner, 2018). Gender is not just representing males and females; it includes all the positions of the individual among the family, relatives, friends, and surroundings. The language differs for each gender, which is distinguished by the use of nouns, pronouns, or verbs. It depends on the type of language that is preferred to read and write (Fox, 2023).

In the year of 1975, linguist Robin Lakoff enabled discussion among American linguists as well as scientists. In this, an American Cognitive linguist and philosopher Lakoff illustrated that women are subjected to being double-bind (Hirnstein et al., 2022). To bring strong support for femininity, the author’s voice-over, indirectly and euphemistically, while it resulted ineffectively and it breaks most of the barriers to women, and it modifies society’s default structure by providing equal support for women in the defined society. Since the year 1990, language has been considered to be the key to expanding the theories related to women used by all English speakers around the world (Bucholtz et al., 2019).

3. Methodology

The field of anthropological- linguistics updates that language and sex play a significant role (Jha, 2021). In 1983 Robert Lakoff’s book named ‘Language and Woman's Place’ also dealt with the same concept. The Lakoff author highlights the access power that is ignored by women, insisting that women are incapable of management due to psychological behaviour. In 2010 ‘Language of Female Leadership’ book by Judith Baxter was written to improve women’s position of work in the developing corporate world. As a recent development, corporate is widespread in many cities, and it invites male gender and female gender human beings for the job.

Language plays a vital role, and hence it is essential to be continuously monitored, especially when the woman is in the workplace. A working woman in a corporation has to understand the stereotyped gender ideologies for communicating with colleagues. ‘The language and Sexual Violence’ work by Susan Elrich gives a strong opinion about language and its threats of sexual assault, misbehaviour, and rape (Vergoossen et al., 2020). Queer gender is presented to concentrate on two aspects, social and political, in terms of language and sexuality. The spread of this concept of gender over social media was analysed, and it helps to improve the viability of gender through Language. For this analysis, the machine learning method was incorporated as deep learning and support vector machine (SVM) (Chen et al., 2021). This evaluation was carried out by the consideration of the data collected from the posts on the social network and tested using the python programming language. This work enables us to assure that the gender problem is also discussed as the main issue, and it is widely spoken about on many social networks all over the world.

Women's experiences with language and its effects on the attitudinal factor are discussed. The evaluation of this work has been conducted by gathering the features such as positive personal characteristics, negative stereotypes of gender, fairness, and other features that are related to the representation of women’s qualities (McLaughlin & Aikman, 2020). These factors were collected for two groups of students and clustered for processing. As a result of this evaluation, the positive impact of the female gender is predicted, which enables better self-identification. The natural gender languages used in each country are depicted in (Prewitt-Freilino et al., 2019). In this language, pronouns are used to differentiate gender in languages. Additionally, only a small number of languages are thought to be gender-neutral; therefore, gender is grammatically distinct.

The limitation in gender-based grammar does not lead to its impact on gender neutrality; however, the specification of languages in terms of nouns and pronouns was present to categorize gender, especially in the language (Joshua & Jaja, 2023). The grammatical system of language is composed of structures and gender-based communication, on consideration of linguistic asymmetry and false generics. Hereby, the gender-specific are such as father, grandmother, sister, mother, and so on, whereas the gender-neutral are given such as patient, doctor, citizen, manager, etc.

For instance, consider the English word ‘Steward, Stewardess’ that is referred to in the Oxford English Dictionary representing the meaning of ‘supervising the service, regulating household expenditure’. Hereby, the word 'stewardesses' denotes a female passenger in an aircraft, and the other word ‘steward’ represents a male. Hereby the term ‘steward’ becomes neutral, while the word ‘stewardess’ is observed to have resemblances to the word steward. This word is masculine and has the meaning of supervising as well as control which is defined to be dominating. In Norwegian, the word ‘forfatterinne’ denotes a female gender, while ‘forfatter’ is the word form that is used to represent a writer, and it is generic and masculine. These are lengthier; hence this generic term was not used till the word was introduced for representing a female writer.

In recent developments, women are equally participating in all types of mind-working and hand-working occupations. The occupation and the work post may be common, but the specification of gender is obtained by using language and the terms that are defined. For example, a male gender nurse, female gender nurse, female dentist, and male surgeon are generally categorized based on their occupation type. Hereby this is social gender which can utilize the stereotype generic pronoun to denote particular roles and occupations of both men and women gender.

The false generic defines masculine and feminine, which denotes male and female gender, respectively. However, this false generic often covers masculine words commonly used to represent males and females. For example, the term ‘lakimies’ defines the profession of ‘lawyer’ in the Finnish language. Hereby in the English language, the term ‘he’ is used to denoting the male gender, which can be as per the following instance ‘A student left the bag in the playground, he should come and take it’. Threesome languages are generic to represent females, and they are Iroquois – Seneca, and Oneida languages, Australian aboriginal – Hellinger and Bubmann.

The research on the English Language textbook of Jordan is presented in the name of Action Pack 10. The author of this book is Edwina Johnson, who published this book in England by York Press (Nofal & Qawar, 2018). This book demonstrates solutions for three questions such as the ratio of male and female characters, female depiction, and social as well as domestic settings of the male characters. The use of language on the topic should have a better linguistic bias and strong language (Giarrizzo, 2020). The main rule for successful language when it comes to grammatical gender is neutralisation. These two categories are defined in German. The ideology of neutralization is the replacement of the masculine using the gender-neutral form. In many cases, this type of alteration is not feasible to be incorporated for all types of word forms since it changes meaning sometimes and it may not give meaning in some instances.

The work is concentrated on gender-fair language that is based on gender stereotypes. The critical issues include reconstruction and reinterpretation. A test was conducted on German speakers considering about 68% of women (Kollmayer et al., 2018). The results are compared for reading content in masculine generics concerning men’s self-stereotyping. This validation was carried out on the online courses in the form of an online questionnaire. Gender is distinguished based on each one’s attitude in gender-fair language. While in most of the research, the study was conducted positively over men. The issue of gender inequality has become universal and is differently created in many countries (Karl, 2017).

Two main reasons stand to influence the growth of gender, and they are, Genetics, which defines the genetics-based understanding of parents in respecting and behaviour toward women (Wright & Delgado, 2023) . The environment illustrates the surroundings in which the human has grown up from childhood. Genetics is based on the biological features and characteristics of a person of any gender (De Benedetto, 2020). Whereas social participation is included in the effect of the environment.

The main findings of this study in this work were depicted in the following,

· Both male and female genders have established specific language usage patterns.

· The women utilize the phonological device of unity that are better than men.

· As a majority, every woman pretends to communicate in increased solidarity due to the communication based on formal texts. In contrast, most men would prefer to communicate and increase it to improve strength, power, and status.

· Almost all women have the responsibility and wish to follow many standards that are followed in the social environment, this is followed by women more than men.

The research methodologies in Language and women are incorporated specifically to improve power in the society around this environment.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In this section, the key research questions that are formulated in language and women are determined from the previous research works of the authors.

· Do women use their language over men’s language in all fields?

· Could the defined gender language system be followed worldwide?

· How many gender stereotypes in language usage be eradicated throughout the world?

4. Discussion

In general, gender has become a social status and identity to represent a person. From this study, gender inequality is present in marriage, work, politics, religion, culture, economy, and so on. The goal of gender equality is freedom, tolerance, respect, shared responsibility, solidarity, and equality. Women are becoming powerful and equal to men in terms of responsibilities (Chen et al., 2021). But still, there exists some injustice to women in some critical cases, which has also created awareness among people.

The study of language and women points out that the features and behaviour of women and men are not used to represent a person’s sex; it means the socialisation process. It helps to raise the critical problem in society of gender equality (Wright & Delgado, 2023). This equality in everything will enable to balance of all rights between women and men.

Many tests were conducted on language and women that help to focus on the impacts created by language on women’s society. From the use of methodologies, most of the work resulted positively in improvising the concepts of language and women and giving women the best stage in increasing the power of women in society (De Benedetto, 2020; Giarrizzo, 2020; McLaughlin & Aikman, 2020).

It is intriguing in the context of language and gender studies that exhibit certain differences while speaking English, even for non-native English speakers (Wahyuningsih, 2020). The following are some possible areas for an investigation into these differences:

4.1 Differences In the Usage of Vocabulary

The conversations among the participants demonstrate that men and women choose words to convey their emotions in different ways. These lexical distinctions can be seen in the several ways listed below:

4.1.1 Adjectives

More words like soft, lovely, sweet, good, nice, and so forth were selected by women. However, men hardly ever utilize adjectives. More adjectives are used, which suggests that women are more aware of and sensitive to their surroundings when describing how they feel and everything around them. In addition, women enjoyed using strong phrases to convey their feelings in a way that males did not often do. It was discovered from their chat that women used a lot of adjectives, but men just used one or two words. According to Wahyuningsih (2020), women frequently employ linguistic devices, or the employment of extra adjectives, to express their solidarity and more vivid circumstances.

4.1.2 Adverbs

The use of adverbs can reveal how men and women use language differently. In this situation, women more frequently use adverbs like ‘so’ and ‘quit’. For example: of course, I’m quite exhausted. Whilst men used to choose the adverb ‘very’.

4.1.3 Expletives And Swear Statements

Perhaps women are more tolerant and flexible in their use of style than males. Because swear words are stigmatised for women and are seen to be uncomfortable, they attempt to avoid using them. Additionally, those words are thought to have the potential to irritate their friendship with their friends. Women frequently use linguistic strategies that emphasise solidarity more than men (Koch et al., 2022). And it demonstrates that the woman hardly ever uses foul language, like ‘damn’. Women, therefore, place a greater emphasis on language usage, manners and etiquette. Women, therefore, place a greater emphasis on language usage, manners and politeness. According to the conversation, men cannot use expletives like ‘damn’. They might think that their learning environment is based on religious study. Therefore, neither men nor women use profanity or derogatory language.

4.1.4 Pronouns

First-person plural pronouns are frequently used by women to express themselves. Men are more likely to concentrate on using second-person pronouns and first-person singular pronouns.

4.1.5 Differences In Attitude

Men and women typically express themselves in various ways and with distinct views. Men and women use the statement at different times to display their differences. Men typically look for solutions directly when they encounter issues. Women, on the other hand, often display their concern by making frantic words and depressing postures. In addition, when unfortunate circumstances are reinforced by emotionality rather than answers, women frequently protest or complain.

4.2 Non-Verbal Differences

According to previous descriptions, women typically exhibit politeness and focus more on grammar usage in conversation than men do. Women used more expressive gestures to express their feelings, emotions, and psychological states during a conversation by moving their hands, faces, and other body parts, whereas men used fewer gestures (Wahyuningsih, 2020).

5. Conclusion

In this paper, Men and women use language differently, and these linguistic differences are a reflection of the social differences between men’s and women’s roles in our society. However, it should be understood that social change initiates language change, not the other way around; alternatively, at best, language change affects attitude changes slowly and indirectly, and these attitude changes won't show up in social change until society is already open to it. It's also crucial for women to be cognizant of the language they use because if they unintentionally speak to men in ‘women's language’, they may find it difficult to get by when they try to live and work abroad. If a female anthropologist picks up the local ‘men's language’, she may find it difficult to communicate with them since she comes out as unfeminine, and they won't know how to respond.

We have demonstrated that usage of language changes depending on the social status of the language user, a sentence is acceptable when it’s spoken by a man, but it’s unacceptable when it’s spoken by a woman. The sentence may be acceptable under one set of assumptions about the subject matter but unacceptable under another when it is used by women.