Effects of YouTube Culture on Academic Performance among Students in Jordan: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

Mohammed Habes, Muhammad Noor Al-Adwan, Ali Fayyad Al Rabat Al Rabat, Ghalib Ali Shatnawi, Marcelle Issa Al Jwaniat

Abstract

The global technological transformation has greatly changed and improved almost every part of our life. Notably, today, social media influences us even for the basic necessities of life, such as education. By keeping the importance of social media in education, this research also focuses on the effects of YouTube culture in improving students' academic performance in Jordan. The researchers used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)as the study relies on a self-proposed conceptual model. Results revealed that social network usage significantly affects Perceived Usefulness, which further leads to accepting YouTube educational channels. Besides, these YouTube educational channels significantly affect the academic performance of Jordanian students. Finally, demographic variables are found to have a significant indirect effect on the student's academic performance, indicating that YouTube channels as benefiting Jordanian students. Thus, it is concluded that YouTube significantly affects academic performance among Jordanian students. Additionally, the effect of demographical factors is also strong on YouTube usage and academic performance. Here it is concluded that the negativity or positivity of these impacts can be determined by the purpose of usage and the extent to which it is used. Further, the researchers have highlighted and discussed the study's limitations.

Keywords:
    YouTube Culture, Academic Performance, Learning, Jordan, Structural Equation Modelling

Full text article

Generated from XML file

References

Alghizzawi, M., Habes, M., Salloum, S. A., Ghani, M. A., Mhamdi, C., & Shaalan, K. (2019). The effect of social media usage on students’e-learning acceptance in higher education: A case study from the United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Information Technology and Language Studies, 3(3). p234. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3097753
Alhammad, K. L., Habes, M., Al Olaimat, F., & Haddad, I. (2021). Attitudes of Students of the Faculty of Mass Communication at Yarmouk University towards Using Video platforms in Distance Education. Review of International Geographical Education Online, 11(5), 1041–1052. https://doi.org/10.48047/rigeo.11.05.99
Alhumaid, K., Habes, M., & Salloum, S. A. (2021). Examining the factors influencing the mobile learning usage during COVID-19 Pandemic: An Integrated SEM-ANN Method. IEEE Access. 9, 102567-102578. https://doi.org/ 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3097753
Ali, S. (2018). Social Media Usage among Teenage Girls in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Global Media Journal, 16(31), 1. P31 DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3097753
Ali, S. (2020). Combatting against Covid-19 & misinformation: a systematic review. Human Arenas, 5, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42087-020-00139-1
Ali, S., Qamar, A., Habes, M., & Al Adwan, M. N. (2021). Gender Discrepancies Concerning Social Media Usage and its Influences on Students Academic Performance. Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana: Revista Internacional de Filosofía Iberoamericana y Teoría Social, 1, 321–333. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4556283.
Al-Mamun, A., Entebang, H., Mansor, S. A., Yasser, Q. R., Nathan, T. M., & Rahman, M. (2014). The Impact of Demographic Factors on Tax Compliance Attitude and Behavior in Malaysia. Journal of Finance, Accounting & Management, 5(1). P109. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2021.30946478
Al-Rahmi, W., Othman, M. S., & Yusuf, L. M. (2015). The Role of Social Media for Collaborative Learning to Improve Academic Performance of Students and Researchers in Malaysian Higher Education. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 16(4), 177–204. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n4s1p193
Al-Skaf, S., Youssef, E., Habes, M., Alhumaid, K., & Salloum, S. A. (2021). The Acceptance of Social Media Sites: An Empirical Study Using PLS-SEM and ML Approaches. Advanced Machine Learning Technologies and Applications: Proceedings of AMLTA 2021, 548–558.
Alwagait, E., Shahzad, B., & Alim, S. (2015). Impact of social media usage on students academic performance in Saudi Arabia. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 1092–1097. doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.09.028
Burgess, J., & Green, J. (2018). YouTube: Online video and participatory culture. John Wiley & Sons.
Chau, C. (2010). YouTube as a participatory culture. New Directions for Youth Development, 2010(128), 65–74. doi.org/10.1002/yd.376.
Chelaru, S. V., Orellana-Rodriguez, C., & Altingovde, I. S. (2012, November). Can social features help learning to rank youtube videos?. In International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering (pp. 552-566). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Cheng, X., Dale, C., & Liu, J. (2008). Statistics and social network of YouTube videos. IEEE International Workshop on Quality of Service, IWQoS, 229–238. https://doi.org/10.1109/IWQOS.2008.32
Colwell, J., & Gregory, K. (2016). Exploring how secondary pre-service teachers’ use online social bookmarking to envision literacy in the disciplines. Reading Horizons, 55(3), 3. doi.org/10.1002/yd.374
Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann, M. L., & Hanson, W. E. (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research, 209(240), 209-240.
Data Portal. (2022). Digital Around the World. https://datareportal.com/global-digital-overview#:~:text=A%20total%20of%205.03%20billion,12%20months%20to%20July%202022.
Dermawan, D. A., Wibawa, R. P., & Susanti, M. D. E. (2020). Analysis of the Use of Virtual Meeting in the Implementation of Proposal/Thesis Examination During Covid-19 Pandemic. 196(Ijcse), 65–69. https://doi.org/10.2991/aer.k.201124.012
Djerf-Pierre, M., Lindgren, M., & Budinski, M. (2019). The role of journalism on YouTube: Audience engagement with “superbug” reporting. Media and Communication, 7(1), 235–247. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v7i1.1758
Duffy, P. (2008). Engaging the YouTube Google-eyed generation: Strategies for using Web 2.0 in teaching and learning. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 6(2), 119–130. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812799456_0003.
Elbasir, M., Elareshi, M., Habas, M., Jeljeli, R., & Salloum, S. A. (2021, June). Media and Non-media Students’ Feedback and Improvement of University Teaching and the Learning Environment. In The International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Vision. 4, 754–765. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-76346-6_67
Faizi, R., & El Fkihi, S. (2018). Investigating the role of social networks in enhancing students’ learning experience: Facebook as a case study. MCCSIS 2018 - Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems; Proceedings of the International Conferences on e-Learning 2018, 2018-July, 151–155. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED590278.
Figueiredo Filho, D. B., Silva Júnior, J. A., & Rocha, E. C. (2011). What is R2 all about? Leviathan (São Paulo), 3, 60. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2237-4485.lev.2011.132282
Fralinger, B., & Owens, R. (2009). YouTube as a learning tool. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 6(8), 15–28. https://doi.org/10.19030/tlc.v6i8.1110.
Friedman, L. W., & Friedman, H. (2013). Using social media technologies to enhance online learning. Journal of Educators Online, 10(1), 1–22. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/114389/.
Geyser, W. (2021, September). How does the YouTube algorithm work: A peek into YouTube’s algorithm changes in 2021. Influencer Marketing Hub.
Gormley, K. A., & McDermott, P. (2010). How Social Bookmarking Can Help the 21st Century Teacher. Language and Literacy Spectrum, 20, 5–14. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1059516.
Greenhow, C., & Lewin, C. (2016). Social media and education: Reconceptualizing the boundaries of formal and informal learning. Learning, Media and Technology, 41(1), 6–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439884.2015.1064954.
Gueorguieva, V. (2008). Voters, MySpace, and YouTube: The impact of alternative communication channels on the 2006 election cycle and beyond. Social Science Computer Review, 26(3), 288–300. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439307305636.
Habes, M., Ali, S., Salloum, S. A., Elareshi, M., & Ziani, A. K. (2020, December). Digital media and students’ AP improvement: an empirical investigation of social TV. In 2020 International Conference on Innovation and Intelligence for Informatics, Computing and Technologies (3ICT) (pp. 1-6). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/3ICT51146.2020.9311941.
Habes, M., Salloum, S. A., Alghizzawi, M., & Mhamdi, C. (2019, October). The relation between social media and students’ academic performance in Jordan: YouTube perspective. In International conference on advanced intelligent systems and informatics (pp. 382-392). Springer, Cham.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115–135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-014-0403-8.
Jeffrey Mingle, Dr. M. A. (2015). Social Media Network Participation and Academic Performance In Senior High Schools in Ghan. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-Journal).Pape r 1286., 7–21. https://doi.org/10.1109/3ICT51146.2020.9311944.
Jeljeli, R., Alnaji, L., & Khazam, K. (2018). A comparison between moodle, Facebook, and paper-based assessment tools: Students’ perception of preference and effect on performance. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 13(5), 86–98. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v13i05.8091
Kaya, C., Usta, T., Baghaki, H. S., & Oral, E. (2021). Relation between educational reliability and viewer interest in YouTube® videos depicting endometrioma cystectomy surgical techniques. Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction, 50(3), 101808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jogoh.2020.101808
Khan, M. L. (2017). Social media engagement: What motivates user participation and consumption on YouTube? Computers in Human Behavior, 66, 236–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.09.024
Lee, D. Y., & Lehto, M. R. (2013). User acceptance of YouTube for procedural learning: An extension of the Technology Acceptance Model. Computers and Education, 61(1), 193–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.001
Lightfoot, S. (2012). “Delicious Politics”—The Use of Social Bookmarking in Politics Teaching. Journal of Political Science Education, 8(1), 94–101. https://doi.org/10.1080/15512169.2012.641400.
Mehmood, S., & Taswir, T. (2013). The effects of social networking sites on the academic performance of students in college of applied sciences, Nizwa, Oman. International Journal of Arts and Commerce, 2(1), 111-125.
Habes, M., Salloum, S. A., Elareshi, M., Ganji, S. F. G., Ziani, A. K., & Elbasir, M. (2020). The influence of youtube videos on ELA during the COVID-19 outbreaks in Jordan. In 2020 Sixth International Conference on e-Learning (econf) (pp. 133-138). IEEE. 10.1109/econf51404.2020.9385501
Elareshi, M., Habes, M., Al-Tahat, K., Ziani, A., & Salloum, S. A. (2022). Factors affecting social TV acceptance among Generation Z in Jordan. Acta Psychologica, 230, 103730. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2022.103730.
Orús, C., Barlés, M. J., Belanche, D., Casaló, L., Fraj, E., & Gurrea, R. (2016). The effects of learner-generated videos for YouTube on learning outcomes and satisfaction. Computers & Education, 95, 254–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.01.007.
Owusu-Acheaw, M., & Larson, A. G. (2015). Use of Social Media and Its Impact on Academic Performance of Tertiary Institution Students: A Study of Students of Koforidua Polytechnic, Ghana. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(6), 94–101. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1083595.
Paolillo, J. C. (2008). Structure and network in the YouTube core. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Proceedings of the 41st Annual, 156.
Osharive, P. (2015). Social media and academic performance of library and information science undergraduates: A case study of selected tertiary institutions in Kwara State, Ilorin. IGI Global.
Petko, D. (2012). Teachers’ pedagogical beliefs and their use of digital media in classrooms: Sharpening the focus of the ‘will, skill, tool model and integrating teachers’ constructivist orientations. Computers & Education, 58(4), 1351–1359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.12.013.
Popescu, E. (2014). Providing collaborative learning support with social media in an integrated environment. World Wide Web, 17(2), 199–212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11280-012-0172-6.
Raikos, A., & Waidyasekara, P. (2014). How useful is YouTube in learning heart anatomy? Anatomical Sciences Education, 7(1), 12–18. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.1361.
Redden, C. S. (2010). Social bookmarking in academic libraries: Trends and applications. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(3), 219–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2010.03.004.
Salloum, S. A., Al-Emran, M., Habes, M., Alghizzawi, M., Ghani, M. A., & Shaalan, K. (2021). What impacts the acceptance of E-learning through social media? An empirical study. In Recent Advances in Technology Acceptance Models and Theories (pp. 419-431). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-64987-6_24.
Salloum, S. A., Al-Emran, M., & Shaalan, K. (2017). Mining Social Media Text: Extracting Knowledge from Facebook. International Journal of Computing and Digital Systems, 6(2), 73–81. https://doi.org/10.12785/ijcds/060203
Salloum, S. A., Al-Emran, M., Shaalan, K., & Tarhini, A. (2019). Factors affecting the E-learning acceptance: A case study from UAE. Education and Information Technologies, 24(1), 509-530. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-018-9786-3.
Salloum, S. A. S., & Shaalan, K. (2018). Investigating students’ acceptance of E-learning system in Higher Educational Environments in the UAE: Applying the Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The British University in Dubai.
Salloum, S. A., & Shaalan, K. (2018, September). Factors affecting students’ acceptance of e-learning system in higher education using UTAUT and structural equation modeling approaches. In International conference on advanced intelligent systems and informatics (pp. 469-480). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99010-1_43Selwyn, N. (2012). Social media in higher education. The Europa World of Learning, 1, 1–10.
Shachar, M., & Neumann, Y. (2010). Twenty years of research on the academic performance differences between traditional and distance learning: Summative meta-analysis and trend examination. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(2)p367. https://jolt.merlot.org/vol6no2/abstracts.htm.
She, L., Rasiah, R., Waheed, H., & Pahlevan Sharif, S. (2021). Excessive use of social networking sites and financial well-being among young adults: The mediating role of online compulsive buying. Young Consumers, 22(2), 272–289. https://doi.org/10.1108/YC-11-2020-1252
Silius, K., Miilumaki, T., Huhtamaki, J., Tebest, T., Merilainen, J., & Pohjolainen, S. (2010). Students’ motivations for social media enhanced studying and learning. Knowledge Management & E-Learning, 2(1), 51. https://doi.org/10.34105/j.kmel.2010.02.005Tahat, K. M., Al-Sarayrah, W., Salloum, S. A., Habes, M., & Ali, S. (2022). The Influence of YouTube Videos on the Learning Experience of Disabled People During the COVID-19 Outbreak. In Advances in Data Science and Intelligent Data Communication Technologies for COVID-19 (pp. 239–252). Springer.
Taherdoost, H. (2018). Sampling Methods in Research Methodology; How to Choose a Sampling Technique for Research. SSRN Electronic Journal, September. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3205035
Zawacki-Richter, O. (2020). The current state and impact of Covid-19 on digital higher education in Germany. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 3(1), 218–226. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbe2.23

Authors

Mohammed Habes
mohammad.habes@yu.edu.jo (Primary Contact)
Muhammad Noor Al-Adwan
Ali Fayyad Al Rabat Al Rabat
Ghalib Ali Shatnawi
Marcelle Issa Al Jwaniat
Author Biographies

Mohammed Habes, Faculty of Mass Communication, Radio & TV Department, Yarmouk University, Jordan

Dr. Mohammed Habes is currently working Assistant Lecturer at the Faculty of Mass Communication (Radio &Television Department) at Yarmouk University-Jordan. Habes does research in Digital Media, New media, media studies, social TV, Television Studies, and Academic performance; his research interest is also in Quantitative Research Methods, Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM).

Muhammad Noor Al-Adwan, College of Mass Communication & media- Al Ain University, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Dr. Muhammad Noor Al Adwan, an assistant prof at Al Ain University, UAE specializing in Public Relations, graduated from University Utara Malaysia in 2012. My area of research is in Public Relations and communications, I published two books and many articles, six of which were published in (Scopus).

Ali Fayyad Al Rabat Al Rabat, Dean of Faculty of Fine Arts, Yarmouk University, Jordan

Prof Ali Fayyad Al rabat: He is a cinema professor and is currently the dean of the Faculty of Arts at Yarmouk University. He has many types of research and studies in the arts and cinema and has participated in many international and local festivals. Prof Al rabat is interested in research journals related to semiology images and artistic.

Ghalib Ali Shatnawi, Faculty of Mass Communication, Department of public relations and advertising, Yarmouk University, Jordan

He is an associate professor of Public Relations at the Department of Public Relations and Advertising/ Yarmouk University. he was Ph.D. in Pubic Communication from Georgia State University-USA in 2004 and an MS in Public Relations from Boston University in 1992. he is currently taking different courses in PR, one of them being in English. Shatnawi's major areas of interest are the following: Strategic management of PR, PR and Crises Management, PR and Reputation Management, PR Campaigns, and Political Communication.

Marcelle Issa Al Jwaniat, Faculty of Mass Communication, Department of Journalism, Yarmouk University, Jordan

Dr. Marcelle Issa Al Jwaniat is a Dedicated and experienced University Professor with over four years of experience serving as a Professor in the Mass Communications - Journal Department of Yarmouk university & TV Department of KUTC. she is a researcher in digital media, also in the women's affairs and youth. Dr. Al Jwaniat is interested in the dialogue between religions, diversity, and human rights. She has experience in training.

Habes, M., Al-Adwan, M. N., Al Rabat, A. F. A. R., Shatnawi, G. A., & Al Jwaniat, M. I. (2022). Effects of YouTube Culture on Academic Performance among Students in Jordan: A Structural Equation Modeling Study. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 22(4), 56–65. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v22i4.38

Article Details