A Review of Culture Shock: Attitudes, Effects and the Experience of International Students

Yusra Mustafa


In light of increasing globalization and the rising trend of international study, this paper reviews prominent literature as well as benchmark studies on culture shock, focusing on the experience of international students. First, it takes a look at concepts of the phenomenon, both negative and positive. This is followed by a discussion of the physical and psychosocial effects of culture shock, prior to detailed discussion of international students and their cultural adjustment problems. A number of suggestions are provided for educational institutions as well as international students regarding how best to manage and overcome culture shock.

    culture, culture shock, international students, cultural adjustment

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Yusra Mustafa
yusra.h.mustafa@outlook.com (Primary Contact)
Author Biography

Yusra Mustafa, 620 Ferguson Rd. Milton, Ontario, Canada

Yusra Mustafa is a linguist and dedicated ELT professional with seven years' experience teaching English and linguistics. She was first in her master's class (English), going on to enroll in an MPhil program (English linguistics), which she completed in 2019. Yusra has publications in Critical Discourse Analysis, ELT and sociolinguistics, but her main areas of interest are cross-cultural communication and education-abroad programs. The former is the topic of her MPhil dissertation. She has presented her papers in international conferences. As part of her current job as lecturer at COSTI, she is among the frontline workers who help newcomers adjust to life in Canada.

Mustafa, Y. (2022). A Review of Culture Shock: Attitudes, Effects and the Experience of International Students. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 21(3), 4–25. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v21i3.18

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