Recently, there has been a phenomenon of reclaiming cultures other than those of the target language in English language teaching (ELT). This qualitative research explores intercultural topics in Indonesian ELT classrooms that are shown along with the target and global cultures. The research involves four English teachers from two Indonesian universities who have intercultural experience studying in universities overseas. Data were collected through observational fieldnotes, interview guides, audio recordings, and compilation of documents. The study reveals that local and neutral culture topics have functioned as templates to contextualize target and global cultures in Indonesian ELT classrooms in order to develop students’ intercultural awareness of local, target, and global cultures.
ELT classrooms, target culture, global culture, intercultural experience, intercultural topics
Full text article
Ali, M.M. & L.A. Walker (2014). From home culture to intercultural knowledge base: Implications for TESOL materials design. The Asian EFL Journal, 78: 27-36.
Alptekin, C. 2002. Towards intercultural communicative competence in ELT. ELT Journal, 56(1): 57-64. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/56.1.57
Arasaratnam, L.A. & M.L. Doerfel (2005). Intercultural communication competence: Identifying key components from multicultural perspectives. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(2): 137–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2004.04.001
Baker, W. (2011). From cultural awareness to intercultural awareness: Culture in ELT. ELT Journal, 66(1): 62-70. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccr017
Bennett, J.M. (2008). On becoming a global soul. In V. Savicki (ed.), Developing Intercultural Competence and Transformation: Theory, Research and Application in International Education (13–31). Stylus.
Byram, M. (2011). Intercultural citizenship from an international perspective. Journal of the NUS Teaching Academy, 1(1):10–20.
Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence. Multilingual Matters.
Byram, M., B. Gribkova & H. Starkey (2002). Developing the Intercultural Dimension in Language Teaching: A Practical Introduction for Teachers. Council of Europe. Accessed 13 May 2021 at https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1562524/1/Starkey_InterculturalDimensionByram.pdf
Carlson, D.L. 1989. Legitimation and delegitimation: American history textbooks and the Cold War. In S. de Castell, A. Luke & C. Luke (eds.), Language, Authority and Criticism: Readings on the School Textbook (46-55). Philadelphia, PA, USA: The Palmer Press.
Cheng, C.M. (2012). The influence of college EFL teachers’ understandings of intercultural competence on their self-reported pedagogical practices in Taiwan. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 11(1): 164-182. Accessed 13 May 2021 at https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ970259.pdf
Cunningsworth, A. (1995). Choosing Your Coursebook. Cambridge University Press.
Dalib, S., M. Harun, N. Yusof & K. Ahmad (2019). Connecting with culturally diverse others: The case of Malaysian students’ social interaction on campus. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 49. http://immi.se/intercultural/nr49/dalib.html
Dervin, F. (2014). Exploring “new” interculturality online. Language and Intercultural Communication, 14(2): 191-206. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2014.896923
Forman, R. (2014). How local teachers respond to the culture and language of a global English as a foreign language textbook. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 27(1): 72-88. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2013.868473
Geertz, C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. Basic Books.
Göbel, K. & A. Helmke (2010). Intercultural learning in English as foreign language instruction: The importance of teachers’ intercultural experience and the usefulness of precise instructional directives. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(8): 1571-1582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.05.008
Hismanoglu, M. (2011). An investigation of ELT students’ intercultural communicative competence in relation to linguistic proficiency, overseas experience and formal instruction. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6): 805–817. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.09.001
Jackson, J. (2015). Preparing students for the global workplace: The impact of a semester abroad. Language and Intercultural Communication, 15(1): 76-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2014.985307
Kachru, B. (1999). Non-native literatures in English as a resource for language teaching. In C.J. Brumfit & R.A. Carter (eds.), Literature and Language Learning (140-149). Oxford University Press.
Ke, I.C. (2012). From EFL to English as an international and scientific language: Analyzing Taiwan’s high-school English textbooks in the period 1952–2009. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 25(2): 173–187. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2012.683530
Kirkpatrick, A. (2006). Asian Englishes: Implications for English language teaching. Asian Englishes, 9(2): 4-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2006.10801186
Kramsch, C. (2013). Culture in foreign language teaching. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 1(1): 57–78. Accessed 15 May 2021 from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1127430.pdf
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2008). Cultural Globalization and Language Education. Yale University Press.
Lincoln, Y.S. & E.G. Guba (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Sage.
Mambu, J.E. (2014). Countering hegemonic ELT materials in Asian EFL contexts. The Asian EFL Journal, 79: 4-25.
McKay, S.K. 2004. Western culture and the teaching of English as an international language (EIL). English Language Teaching Forum, 42(2): 10-15.
Méndez Garcia, M.C. (2005). International and intercultural issues in English teaching textbooks: The case of Spain. Intercultural Education, 16(1): 57-68.
Nault, D. 2006. Going global: Rethinking culture teaching in ELT contexts. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 19(3): 314-328. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908310608668770
Paika, J.S., G.D. Evans, F.T. Luscheia, S.M. Kulaa, M. Witensteina, Y. Shimogoria & K. Truong, (2015). Intercultural exchange among global teachers: The case of the teaching excellence and achievement study abroad program. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 49: 100-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.06.011
Rai, L. & C. Deng (2014). Glocalisation and English language education in Chinese context globalisation. Societies and Education, 14(1): 3-20.
Raquitico, K.L. (2014). Inclusion of Non-native English literatures in English textbooks toward critical and multicultural literacy. Asian EFL Journal Professional Teaching Articles, 79: 4-23. Accessed 15 May 2021 from http://asian-efl-journal.com/wp-content/uploads/mgm/downloads/ta/AEJ%20TA%2079%20October%202014.pdf
Rubdy, R. 2009. Reclaiming the local in teaching EIL. Language and Intercultural Communication, 9(3): 156-174. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708470902748822
Shin, J.R., Z. Eslami & W.C. Chen (2011). Presentation of local and international culture in current international English-language teaching textbooks. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 24(3): 253-268. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2011.614694
Su, Y.C. 2014. The international status of English for intercultural understanding in Taiwan’s high school EFL textbooks. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(3): 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2014.959469
Tajeddin, Z. & S. Teimournezhad (2014). Exploring the hidden agenda in the representation of culture in international and localised ELT textbooks. The Language Learning Journal, 43(2): 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2013.869942
Trede, F., W. Bowles & D. Bridges (2013). Developing intercultural competence and global citizenship through international experiences: Academics’ perceptions. Intercultural Education, 24(5): 442-455. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2013.825578
Tseng, Y.H. (2002). A lesson in culture. ELT Journal, 56(1): 11–21. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/56.1.11
Weninger, C. & T. Kiss (2013). Culture in English as a foreign language (EFL) textbooks: A semiotic approach. TESOL Quarterly, 47(4): 694–716. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.87
Widdowson, H.G. (1998). Context, community, and authentic language. TESOL Quarterly, 32(4): 705-716. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588001
Yuen, K.M. (2011). The representation of foreign cultures in English textbooks. ELT Journal, 65(4): 458–466. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccq089