Indulgence Versus Restraint: Exploration of A New Cultural Dimension in Context

Elena Chudnovskaya, Laura L.S. O’Hara


This study examines the intercultural experiences of eight Danish expatriates in Russia. In-depth interviews revealed three characteristics of Hofstede’s dimension: Indulgence verses Restraint (IVR). This study allows us to understand communication between restrained cultures (e.g., Russia) and indulgent cultures (e.g., Denmark). This carries implications for specific and in-depth workplace training to help managers improve intercultural communication within the Russian workplace.

    Expatriate managers, indulgence versus restraint, cross-cultural communication, organizational communication training, Russia, Denmark

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Elena Chudnovskaya
Laura L.S. O’Hara (Primary Contact)
Author Biographies

Elena Chudnovskaya, Department of Professional Communication, Texas Tech University Box 43082 Lubbock, TX, USA 79409, United States

Elena V. Chudnovskaya (Ph.D., University of Miami, 2017) is an online lecturer of Business Communication at Texas Tech University, Department of Professional Communication. Her research has focused on organizational, intercultural, and health communication. Her work has been published in the Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, the Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, Health Promotion Practice, Communication Research, HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research, Public Understanding of Science, and the Journal of Bullying and Social Aggression.

Laura L.S. O’Hara, Professor of Communication Studies, Ball State University, United States

Laura L.S. O’Hara (Ph.D., Ohio University, 1998) is a Professor of Communication Studies at Ball State University, where her research has focused on mentorship of graduate students, physician-patient communication in health-care contexts, intercultural business communication, and gender and culture in educational contexts. Her work has been published in the International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, the Qualitative Report, the Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, Communication Studies, Communication Education, Gender & Communication in Applied Contexts, Health Education & Behavior, Healthcare, Information & Communication Technologies, the Journal of Intergroup Relations, the Ohio Communication Journal, and Southern Communication Journal.

Chudnovskaya, E., & O’Hara, L. L. (2022). Indulgence Versus Restraint: Exploration of A New Cultural Dimension in Context. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 22(2), 41–52.

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