Intercultural dialogue A tool for young people to address exclusion in southern Africa

Charaf Ahmimed (1) , Sofia Quesada-Montano (2)
(1) United Nations (UNESCO and UNHCR) , France
(2) United Nations (UNESCO and UNHCR) , France


This article aims to develop understanding about how intercultural dialogue can pave the way for more inclusive societies. Four intercultural dialogues were held, one in each of the following countries: Malawi, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. They addressed important topics such as cultural identity, gender inequality, and power imbalances in access to education or employment, with young people from diverse ethnic origins (e.g. Tonga, Shona and Ndebele). The dialogues provided participants with an opportunity to discuss the social dynamics of exclusion. In addition, they allowed for the study of the usefulness of intercultural dialogue to motivate personal transformation as a cornerstone for social justice.

Full text article

Generated from XML file


Achankeng I, F. (2013). Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa. Engaging the colonial factor. African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes. Retrieved from

African Development Bank, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. (2012). African Economic Outlook 2012. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Hp/Downloads/AEO2012_EN.pdf DOI:

Allport, G. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.

Beker, J. and Swim, J. (2011). Seeing the Unseen: Attention to Daily Encounters With Sexism as Way to Reduce Sexist Beliefs. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35, 227-242. DOI:

Cassell, J. and Tversky, D. (2005). The language of online intercultural community formation. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 10(2). Retrieved from DOI:

Chigunta, F. (2001). Understanding exclusion and creating value: A look at youth livelihoods in informal urban settlements in Zambia; study report II. Oxford University Centre for International Development.

Chiper, S. (2013). Teaching Intercultural Competences: ICT resources and best practices. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 1641-1645. DOI:

Cohen, H. (1995). What should we do when nations get angry? Nexus Africa, 1(2), 11-14.

Dallmayr, F. (2009). Hermeneutics and inter-cultural dialog: linking theory and practice. Ethics & Global Politics, 2(1), 23-39. DOI:

Danisile Ntuli, C. (2012). Intercultural Misunderstanding in South Africa: An Analysis of Nonverbal Communication Behaviour in Context. Intercultural Communication Studies XXI, 2, 20-31.

Dessel, A.B. (2010). Effects of Intergroup Dialogue: Public School Teachers and Sexual Orientation Prejudice. Small Group Research, 41(5), 556-592. DOI:

Dessel, A.B. and Rogge, M.E. (2008). Evaluation of Intergroup Dialogue: A review of the empirical literature. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 26(2), 199-235. DOI:

DeTurk, S. (2006). The power of dialogue: Consequences of intergroup dialogue and their implications for agency and alliance building. Communication Quarterly, 54(1), 33-51. DOI:

Duala-M’Bedy, B. (1984). African problems: Any links with the past? Cameroon Tribune, Vol. 10. 6th June 1984.

Du Toit, R. (2003). Unemployed youth in South Africa: The distressed generation? Paper presented at the Minnesota International Counseling Institute (MICI), 27 July- 1 August.

Fangen, K. (2010). Social exclusion and inclusion of young immigrants. Presentation of analytical framework. Young. Nordic Journal of Youth Research, 18(2), 133-156. DOI:

García Agustín O. (2012). Intercultural dialogue - Visions of the Council of Europe and the European Commission for a Post-Multiculturalist Era. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 29. Retrieved from DOI:

Gayle, B.M., Cortez, D. and Preiss, R.W. (2013). Safe Spaces, Difficult Dialogues, and Critical Thinking. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 7(2), Article 5. Retrieved from DOI:

Gonçalves, S. (2011). Intangible culture, cooperation and intercultural dialogue among university students. Intercultural Education, 22(1), 83-95. DOI:

Groenewald, C and Kotze, F. (2014). Multi-cultural congregations in South Africa – Guidelines from social science theory and research in being and becoming community. Paper submitted for a Conference on Being Multi-Cultural Congregations, organised by Kommissie vir Getuienisaksie (KGA), Raad vir Gemeenteontwikkeling en Kerklike Samewerking (GKS), and Hugenote Kollege (HK), 22-23 July 2014.

Howard, P.N. & Hussain, M.M. (2013). Democracy’s Fourth Wave? Digital media and the Arab spring. New York: Oxford. DOI:

Ighbor, K. (2013). Africa’s youth: a “ticking time bomb” or an opportunity?. Africa Renewal. Retrieved from

Jackman, M. R. (1994). The velvet glove: Paternalism and conflict in gender, class, and race relations. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. DOI:

Jinadu, A. (2007). Explaining & Managing Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Towards a Cultural Theory of Democracy. In Claude Ake Memorial Papers No. 1 Department of Peace and Conflict Research Uppsala University & Nordic Africa Institute Uppsala. Retrieved from

Lambertsson Björk, E. and Eschenbach, J. (2014). Reel Life - Film as a tool for intercultural dialogue in the classroom and beyond. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 36. Retrieved from DOI:

Larrea Espinar, A.M., Raigón Rodríguez, A.R. and Gómez Parra, M.E. (2012). El uso de las TIC en el desarrollo de la competencia intercultural. Pixel- Bit Revista de Medios y Educación, 40, 115-124.

Lea Robison, A. (2016). Ethnic Diversity, segregation, and ethnocentric trust in Africa. AfroBarometer, working paper no 166.

Mail & Guardian. (2014, April 17). SADC ogles a double D shift for the youth. Retrieved from

McLean, L. and Fraser, E. (2009). Youth exclusion, violence, conflict and fragile states. Report prepared for DFIDs Equity and Rights Team. Social Development Direct.

Morrow, S., Panday, S., and Richter, L. (2005). Where we’re at and where we’re going: Young people in South Africa in 2005. Johannesburg: Umsobomvu Youth Fund.

Nagai-Rothe, E. (2015). Dialogue as a Tool for Racial Reconciliation: Examining Racialised Frameworks. Journal of Dialogue Studies, 3(1), 57-70. DOI:

Nagda, B., McCoy, M. and Barrett, M. (2006). Mix it Up: Crossing social boundaries as a pathway to youth civic engagement. National Civic Review, 95(1), 47-56. DOI:

Neumayer, C. and Raffl, C. (2008). Facebook for global protest: The potential and limits of social software for grassroots activism. Paper for the 5th CIRN Community Informatics Conference “ICTs for social inclusion: What is reality?” Prato, Italy.

Nyimbili, K. (2012). State of the Nation Report on Young People in Zambia. Zambia: Restless Development.

Nyamnjoh, F.B. (2006). Insiders and Outsiders. Citizenship and xenophobia in contemporary Southern Africa. Dakar: CODESRIA. DOI:

Oluwagbemi-Jacob, D. (2011). Interculturality in the context of Africa’s colonial and decolonization experience. The African Symposium, 11(1), 101-114.

Ortega Villaseñor, H. and Guzmán Macías, H. (2012). Diálogo intercultural con México. Estudio caso de aprendizaje combinado. Cuadernos Interculturales, 10(19), 73-111. Retrieved from

OSISA. (2012. Status of Disability Rights in Southern Africa. Retrieved from

Pérez-Sáinz, J.P. and Mora-Salas, M. (2007). La persistencia de la miseria en Centroamérica. Una mirada desde la exclusión social. Costa Rica: FLACSO.

Pettigrew, T. and Tropp, L. (2006). A Meta-Analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(5), 751-783. DOI:

Pieterse, C. (2007). A Socialization-Based Values Approach to Embracing Diversity and Confronting Resistance in Intercultural Dialogues. College Students Affairs Journals, 26(2), 144-152.

Schoem, D. and Hurtado, S. (2001). Intergroup Dialogue. Deliberative democracy in school, college, community and workplace. USA: The University of Michigan Press. DOI:

Souweidane, V.S. (2012). An Initial Test of an Intervention Designed to Help Youth Question Negative Ethnic Stereotypes. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Michigan.

Stephan, W.G. and Stephan, W.C. (2013). Designing intercultural education and training programs: An evidence-based approach. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37, 277– 286. DOI:

Srivastava, A. and Thomson, S.B. (2009). Framework Analysis: A Qualitative Methodology for Applied Policy Research. Journal of Administration and Governance, 4(2), 72-79.

UNESCO. (2013). Intercultural Competences. Conceptual and Operational Framework. Retrieved from

UNFPA. (2012). Status Report. Adolescents and Young People in Sub-Saharan Africa. Opportunities and challenges. Retrieved from

United Nations. (2013). Regional Overview: Youth in Africa. Fact sheet. Retrieved from

Van Breda, A.D. and Dickens, L. (2015). Educational persistence and social exclusion among youth leaving residential care in South Africa. Nuances: Estados sobre educação, 26(1), 22-41. DOI:


Charaf Ahmimed
(Primary Contact)
Sofia Quesada-Montano
Author Biographies

Charaf Ahmimed, United Nations (UNESCO and UNHCR)

Charaf Ahmimed is a Ph.D. Candidate at the Department of Sociology of the University of Cape Town. He is conducting research on the social reintegration of migrants’ returnees. Mr Ahmimed managed the social and human sciences programme of UNESCO in Southern Africa, South-East Asia and Central America. He was formerly the Senior Programme Officer with Canada’s International Development Research Centre. He has also worked at Partnership Africa Canada, United Nations Development Programme, and Council of Europe. He is currently the Head of the Transformation Support Unit in the Cabinet of the Director General of UNESCO. His recent publications include Masculinities in Latin America (2016),Youthpolitical participation in Costa Rica (2015), Role of media in the promotion of sustainable development and culture of peace(2015), and Public policies and social inclusion in South-East Asia (2014). Mr Ahmimed graduated with a Masters in International Relations (Laval University, Canada).

Sofia Quesada-Montano, United Nations (UNESCO and UNHCR)

Sofía Quesada-Montano is Protection Associate with UNHCR Costa Rica. Licence in Social Psychology and M.Sc. in Sociology, she teaches in the University of Costa Rica in the areas of research and sociology of culture. She has done research with the Institute of Psychological Research in the University of Costa Rica and with the Inter-American Development Bank in the areas of media, youth and education. She worked with UNESCO Costa Rica as a consultant on Public Policies, Inclusion and Equality where she developed projects on gender, youth, evidence-based policies and inclusion; she was also a consultant for UNESCO’s Regional Office for Southern Africa, where she developed initiatives in the area of intercultural dialogue.

Ahmimed, C., & Quesada-Montano, S. (2019). Intercultural dialogue A tool for young people to address exclusion in southern Africa. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 19(2), 1–13.

Article Details


Smart Citations via scite_