The Chinese Intercultural Competence Scale and the External Factors of Spanish as a Foreign Language

Tzu Yiu Chen (1)
(1) Faculty of Philology and Communication, Barcelona University, Barcelona, Spain, Spain

Abstract

The current study aimed to assess the intercultural competence (IC) of Chinese students of Spanish as a foreign language (SFL) using Chen's (2019) Chinese Intercultural Competence Scale (CICS), as well as to investigate which external factors influence the acquisition of IC in the field of SFL. The quantitative data from the study show that the participants' IC level was neither high nor low. Their level of IC was affected by age, study abroad experience, frequency of using Spanish, and positive intercultural experiences, but not by gender, college year, or number of foreign languages spoken. The findings have implications for intercultural educators and teachers of foreign languages.

Full text article

Generated from XML file

References

Asante, M. K., Gudykunst, W. B., & Newmark, E. (1989). Handbook of international and intercultural communication. Sage Publications, Inc.

Arasaratnam, L. A. (2016). An exploration of the relationship between intercultural communication competence and bilingualism. Communication Research Reports, 33(3), 231-238. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090600668923

Bennett, M. J. (1986). Towards Ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. In R. M. Paige. (Ed.), Cross-cultural orientation: New conceptualisations and applications (pp. 27-70). Lanham, MD: University Press.

Bhawuk, D. P. S., & Brislin, R. (1992). Measurement of intercultural sensitivity using the concepts of individualism and collectivism. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16(4), 413-436. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(92)90031-O

Blubaugh, J. A., & Pennington, D. L. (1976). Crossing Difference: Interracial Communication. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.

Brislin, R. W. & Yoshida, T. (1994). Improving intercultural interactions: modules for cross-cultural training programmes. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Chen, G. M., & Gao, Y. C. (2015). Construction of the Intercultural Communication Competence Inventory for Chinese College Students Based on the Know-and-Doing Model. Foreign Language in China, 65(3), 14-21. https://doi.org/10.13564/j.cnki.issn.1672-9382.2015.03.003

Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (2000). Development and validation of the intercultural sensitivity scale. Human Communication, 3(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1037/t61546-000

Chen, H. & Hu, B. (2023). On the intercultural sensitivity of university students in multicultural regions: A case study in Macao. Frontiers in psychology,14 (Feb), 01-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1090775

Chen, T. Y. (2015).Cultural competence of Taiwanese university learners of Spanish: Cultural references acquired at the end of their Spanish degree. Master’s thesis. Tamshui, Taiwan, Tamkang University.

Chen, T. Y. (2019). A descriptive study on the intercultural competence of Chinese speaking students in the Spanish L2/LE classroom (Doctoral dissertation, Autonomous Barcelona University). Retrieved from https://www.educacion.gob.es/teseo/mostrarRef.do?ref=1825719

Chen, T. (2022). Developing an Intercultural Competency Instrument in a Foreign Language Teaching Context: A Study of Chinese Students of Spanish as a Foreign Language Journal of Intercultural Communication, 22(4), 44-55. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v22i4 .84

Deardorff, D. K. (2006). Identification and Assessment of Intercultural Competence as a Student Outcome of Internationalisation. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 241-266. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315306287002

Deardorff, D. K., & Jones. E. (2012). An emerging focus in international higher education. In Deardorff, D.K., de Wit, H., Heyl, J., and Adams, T. (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education (pp. 2-26). Sage Publications, Inc.

Duan, X. Y. (2019). A study of the correlation between the intercultural contact of college students and the competence of intercultural communication. Master’s thesis. Jinan, China, Shandong Normal University.

Dunning, D., Meyerowitz, J. A. & Holzberg, A. D. (1989). Ambiguity and self-evaluation: The role of idiosyncratic trait definitions in self-serving assessments of ability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1082-1090. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1082

Elliott A.C, & Woodward W. A. (2007). Statistical analysis quick reference guidebook with SPSS examples. 1st ed. Sage Publications, Inc.

Fantini, A. E. & Tirmizi, A. (2006). Exploring and Assessing Intercultural Competence. Brattleboro, VT: Federation EIL.

Fu, M. X. (2017). Investigation on intercultural competence of non-English major college students and analysis of related factors. Oversea English, 19, 68-80.

Gao, Y. C. (2016). A Survey on The Intercultural Communication Competence of Chinese College Student. Foreign Languages and Their Teaching, 287(2), 71-78. https://doi.org/10.13458/j.cnki.flatt.004243

Ghasemi, A., & Zahediasl, S. (2012). Normality tests for statistical analysis: a guide for non-statisticians. International journal of endocrinology and metabolism, 10(2), 486-489. https://doi.org/10.5812/ijem.3505

Gudykunst, William B. (1983). Intercultural Communication Theory: Current Perspectives. Sage Publications, Inc.

Gudykunst, W. B. (2005). An Anxiety/Uncertainty Management (AUM) Theory of Strangers' Intercultural Adjustment. In W. B. Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 419-457). Sage Publications Ltd.

Hall, E. T. (1959). The Silent Language. New York: Doubleday.

Hall, E. T. (1966). The Hidden Dimension. New York: Doubleday.

Hall, E. T. (1968). Proxemic Theory . In Griffin, E., Ledbetter, A., and Sparks, G. (Eds.), A First Look at Communication Theory 11th edition (pp. 60-67). Mc Grow Hill Education.

Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York: Anchor Books/Doubleday.

Higgins, C. (2007). Constructing membership in the in-group Affiliation and resistance among urban Tanzanians. Special issue of Pragmatics, 17(1), 49-70. https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.17.1.05hig

Hofstede, H. (1980). Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills/London: Sage.

Hofstede, H. (1991). Cultures and Organisations: Software of the Mind. London: McGraw-Hill.

Huang, L. J. (2021). Developing intercultural communicative competence in foreign language classrooms - A study of EFL learners in Taiwan. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 83, 55-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2021.04.015

Jackson, J. (2011). Host language proficiency, intercultural sensitivity, and study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21(1), 167-188. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v21i1.308

Kim, Y. Y. (1991). Intercultural communication competence: A systems-theoretical view. In S. Ting- Toomey, & F. Korzenny (Eds.), Cross-cultural interpersonal communication (pp. 259-275). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Kuang, Y.W., Sun, K. X., Kang, T. Y.,Yang. W., & Song. J. L. (2022). A study on intercultural communication competence of non-English major postgraduates-Taking China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing) as an example. Overseas English, 6, 187-189.

Lin, C. (2016). A Study on Ph.D. Chinese Students’ Academic Adaptation at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain (Doctoral dissertation, Autonomous Barcelona University). Retrieved from https://ddd.uab.cat/pub/tesis/2016/hdl_10803_399511/lica1de1.pdf

Meyer, M. (1991). Developing transcultural competence: Case studies of advanced language learners. In D. Buttjes & M. Byram (eds.), Mediating Languages and Cultures; Towards an Intercultural Theory of Foreign Language Education (pp.136-158). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (June 6, 2018). Retrieved January 12, 2023, from https://www.educacionyfp.gob.es/

Nadeem, M. U., Mohammed, R., & Dalib, S. (2020). Retesting integrated model of intercultural communication competence (IMICC) on international students from the Asian context of Malaysia. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 74, 17-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.10.005

Pardo, A., & San Martín, R. (2010). Data analysis in social and health sciences II. Madrid: Editorial Síntesis.

Rich, A. (1974). Interracial Communication. New York: Harper & Row.

Rui, Y. Q. (2016). A study on English Majors’ Intercultural Communication Competence. Master’s thesis. Suzhou, China, Soochow University.

Samovar, L. A. & Porter, R. E. (1972). Intercultural communication: a reader. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc.

Scollon, R. & Scollon, S. W. (1981). Narrative, Literacy, and Face in Interethnic Communication. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Scollon, R., Scollon, S. W. & Jones, R. H. (2012). Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach (3rd ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Sercombe, P., & Young, T. (2010). Communication, Discourses, and Interculturality: Introduction to the special issue. Special issue of Language and Intercultural Communication, 11(3), 181-188. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708470903348523

Spitzberg, B. H., & Changnon, G. (2009). Conceptualizing intercultural competence. In D. K. Deardorff (ed.), The SAGE Handbook of intercultural competence (pp.1-55). Sage.

Spitzberg, B. H. & Cupach, W. R. (1984). Interpersonal communication competence. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Ting-Toomey, S. (1993). Communicative resourcefulness: An identity negotiation perspective. In R. L. Wiseman, & J. Koester (Vol. Eds.), Intercultural communication competence, 17, (pp. 72-111). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Weng, I. J. J. (2018). Predicting Taiwanese College Student Intercultural Sensitivity: What truly matters? The Asian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5(2), 240-253.

Wu, W. P., Fan, W. W., & Peng, R. Z. (2015). A comprehensive evaluation of Chinese college students’ intercultural competence. International Journal of International Relations, 47 (July), 143-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.04.003

Wu, J. F. (2016). Impact of Foreign Language Proficiency and English Uses on Intercultural Sensitivity. I.J. Modern Education and Computer Science, 8(8), 28-35. https://doi.org/10.5815/ijmecs.2016.08.04

Yuan, S. H. (2009). Intercultural Sensitivity of English Majors at a University of Technology. Master’s thesis. Tainan, Taiwan, Tainan University of Technology.

Zhang, H. L. (2007). Intercultural approach to foreign language teaching. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

Zhou, K. Y. (2011). Research on the relationship between intercultural communication competence and English learning motivation of college students. Master’s thesis. Wuhan, China, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.

Zhu, M. Y. (2022). Chinese Students in Barcelona (Spain). Culture shock and adaptation strategies. Intercultural Education, 20(1), 36-47. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.2420-8175/14969

Zhu, H. (2016). “‘Where Are You From?’ Interculturality and Interactional Practices.” In Adam K. & Zhu H. (eds.), Crossing Boundaries and Weaving Intercultural Work, Life, and Scholarship in Globalizing Universities (pp.147-159). London: Routledge.

Zhu H. (2019). Exploring Intercultural Communication: Language in Action (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Zimmermann, S. (1995). Perceptions of intercultural communication competence and international student adaptation to an American campus. Communication Education, 44(4), 321-335. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634529509379022

Authors

Tzu Yiu Chen
tzyyiu@gmail.com (Primary Contact)
Author Biography

Tzu Yiu Chen, Faculty of Philology and Communication, Barcelona University, Barcelona, Spain

Tzu-Yiu Chen (PhD., Autonomous University of Barcelona) is Visiting Professor of Chinese at the Faculty of Philology and Communication of Barcelona University, Spain. She also works as a Chinese teacher at the Confucius Institute Foundation of Barcelona.  Her research focuses on Spanish as a Foreign Language of Chinese students, especially on intercultural communication.

Chen, T. Y. (2023). The Chinese Intercultural Competence Scale and the External Factors of Spanish as a Foreign Language. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 23(3), 43–55. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v23i3.240

Article Details

Smart Citations via scite_
Views
  • Abstract 1499
  • Download PDF 240
  • PDF with Cover 116
  • XML 0