Prejudice toward American Muslims: An Integrated Threat Analysis

Stephen M. Croucher (1) , Dini Homsey (2) , Erin Brusch (3) , Christine Buyce (4) , Shirley DeSilva (5) , Aretha Thompson (6)
(1) Department of Communication at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. , Finland
(2) College of Business at the University of Central Oklahoma , Finland
(3) Marist College , Finland
(4) Marist College , Finland
(5) Marist College , Finland
(6) Marist College , Finland


This study explores prejudice toward American Muslims. Prejudice is conceptualized using Stephan and Stephan’s integrated threat theory (ITT). ITT identifies four kinds of threat that can lead to prejudice: realistic threats, symbolic threats, stereotypes, and intergroup anxiety. Data were gathered in the United States (= 281) among self-identified Christians. Findings confirm: 1) a positive correlation between real and symbolic threats, and stereotypes, 2) increased contact with an immigrant group, in this case Muslims, is negatively correlated with perceptions of real and symbolic threat, and 3) levels of prejudice differ based on level of education. Theoretical and practical implications of the relationship between prejudice, interpersonal contact/communication, and education are discussed.

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Stephen M. Croucher (Primary Contact)
Dini Homsey
Erin Brusch
Christine Buyce
Shirley DeSilva
Aretha Thompson
Author Biographies

Stephen M. Croucher , Department of Communication at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

Stephen M. Croucher (Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 2006) is a professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Jyväskylä in Finland.

Dini Homsey, College of Business at the University of Central Oklahoma

  1. Dini Homsey (PhD, University of Oklahoma) is an Instructor in the College of Business at the University of Central Oklahoma.
Croucher , S. M., Homsey, D., Brusch, E., Buyce, C., DeSilva, S., & Thompson, A. (2013). Prejudice toward American Muslims: An Integrated Threat Analysis. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 13(2), 1–08.

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