Ideology Complexity Model: Towards the soul-searching communication

Haibin Dong (1)
(1) Department of Communication & Journalism, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA , United States


In communication studies, ideology seems only legitimate in the critical perspective and discussed in a contested manner. However, ideology as an important and unavoidable dimension of cultural identity has profound influences on communication at all levels and in all contexts. The present study is an attempt to theorize about the ideological issues of intercultural communication in Ideology Complexity Model (ICM) based on the current research of cultural identity implied by a metaphorical model---Caltrop Matrix of Identity (CMI). Based on the brief application of a case of ideological conflict in a real-life intercultural setting, I discussed about the theoretical and practical implications of ideological considerations in intercultural communication scholarship.

Full text article

Generated from XML file


Althusser, L. (1972). Ideology and ideological state apparatuses, in Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays, London: New Left Books.

Barker, C. (2002). Investigating problems in cultural studies; Language, practice and the material; Truth, science and ideology; Culture as a way of life. In Lee Arts and Yahya R. Kamalipour (Eds.), The globalization of corporate media hegemony, 55-78. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Bekerman, Z. (2005). Complex contexts and ideologies: Bilingual education in conflict-ridden areas. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 4, 1-20. DOI:

Breen, M. & Corcoran, F. (1986). Myth, drama, fantasy theme, and ideology in mass media studies. Progress in Communication Sciences, Vol. 7.

Calcagno-Tristant, F. (2003). Image and science: between rhetoric and ideology. Visual Communication, Oct. DOI:

Carey, J. W. (1975). Culture and communication. Communication Research, 2, 173-179. DOI:

Carey, J. W. (1989). Communication as Culture: Essays on media and society. Winchester, MA: Unwin Hyman.

Cavallaro, D. (2001). Critical and Cultural Theory. London and New Brunswick, NJ: The Athlone Press.

Chan, J. M. & Lee, C. (1988). Press ideology and organizational control in Hong Kong. Communication Research, Apr. DOI:

Chang, T. & Poindexter, P. M. (1999). The internationalization of television in China: The evolution of ideology, society, and media since the Reform (Book). Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Summer.

Collier, M. J. (1998). Research on cultural identity: Reconciling post-colonial and interpretive approaches. In D. Tanno (Ed.), Cultural identity and intercultural communication (International and Intercultural Communication Annual, 21, 122-147). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Collier, M. J. (2005). Theorizing cultural identifications: Critical update and continuing evolution. In Gudykunst, William B. (Ed.), Theorizing About Intercultural Communication, 235-256. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creese, A. & Martin, P. (2003). Multilingual classroom ecologies: Inter-relationships, interactions and ideologies. International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 6, 161-167. DOI:

Deetz, S. (1991). Screen of power: Ideology, domination, and resistance in informational society. Quarterly Journal of Speech, Nov.

Dumont, L. (1986). Collective identities and universalist ideology: the Actual Interplay. Theory, Culture & Society, 3/3, 25-33. DOI:

Foucault, M. (1973). The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences, New York: Vintage/Random House.

Frentz, T. S. & Rushing, J. H. (1993). Integrating ideology and archetype in rhetorical criticism, part II: A case study of Jaws. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 79, 61-81. DOI:

Grossberg, L. (1996). Identity and cultural studies: Is that all there is? In Stuart Hall and Paul du Gay (Eds.), Questions of cultural identity, 87-107. Thousands Oaks: Sage. DOI:

Gudykunst, W. B., Lee, M. C., Nishida, T., and Ogawa, N. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication: An introduction. In Gudykunst, W. B. (ed.) Theorizing About Intercultural Communication (pp. 3-32). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hall, S. (1985). Signification, representation, ideology: Althusser and the post-structuralist debates. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 2, 91-114. DOI:

Hall, S. (1986). Problem of ideology: Marxism without guarantees. Journal of Communication Inquiry, Summer. DOI:

Hall, S. (1996). Gramsci's relevance for the study of race and ethnicity. In D. Morley & K.-H. Chen (eds.), Stuart Hall: Critical dialogues in cultural studies (pp. 413-440). London: Routledge.

Haslett, B. (1990). Discourse, ideology, and organizational control. Communication Yearbook, 13, 48-58. DOI:

Hawes, L. C. (1989). Power, discourse, and ideology: The micropractices of common sense. Communication Yearbook, 12, 60-75. DOI:

Hecht, M. (2000). A research odyssey: Towards the development of a communication theory of identity. Communication Monographs, 60, 76-82. DOI:

Hecht, M. L. (2005). A Communication theory of identity: Development, theoretical perspective, and future Directions. In Gudykunst, William B. (Ed.), Theorizing About Intercultural Communication, 257-278. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Heath, S. B. (1989). Language ideology. International Encyclopedia of Communications, 2, 393-395.

Hollihan, T. A. & Riley, P. (1993). Rediscovering ideology. Western Journal of Communication, Spring, 57, 272-277. DOI:

Hornberger, N. H. (2003). Afterword: Ecology and ideology in multilingual classrooms. DOI:

Jameson, F. (1988). The ideologies of theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Jensen, K. B. (1987). News as ideology: Economics statistics and political ritual in television network news. Journal of Communication, Winter. DOI:

Johnson, G. M.. (1990). Stuart Hall's theory of ideology: A frame for rhetorical criticism. Western Journal of Speech Communication, Fall.

Kellner, D. (1995). Media Culture: Cultural studies, identity and politics between the modern and the postmodern. London: Routledge.

Lau, T. & Lo, Y. (1991). Heshang (River Elegy): A television orchestration of a new ideology in China. Asian Journal of Communication.1, 73-102.

International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 6, 296-302.

Leeds-Hurwitz, W. (1990). Notes in the history of intercultural communication: The Foreign Service Institute and the mandate for intercultural training. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 76, 263-281. DOI:

Lo, Y. K., & Lau, T. Y. (1991). Heshang (River Elegy): A television orchestration of a new ideology in China. Asian Journal of Communication, 1, 73-102.Luttbeg, N. R.& Gant, M. M. (1985). The failure of liberal/conservative ideology as a cognitive structure. Public Opinion Quarterly, Spring. DOI:

Lustig, M. W. & Koester, J. (2003). Intercultural competence: interpersonal communication across cultures (Fourth Edition). Allyn and Bacon.

Ma, E. K. & Gazette, W. (1995). Production of television ideologies: A comparative study of public and commercial TV Dramas. International Journal for Communication Studies, 55, 39-54. DOI:

Mark, K & Engels, F. (1965). The Germen Ideology. London: Lawrence and Wishart.

McCormack, T. (1987). Ending of communication and the beginning of ideology. Mass Communication Review Yearbook.

Moon, D. G. (1996). Concepts of "culture": Implications for intercultural communication research. Communication Quarterly, 44, 70-84. DOI:

Moore, M. P.. (1988). The rhetoric of ideology: Confronting A critical dilemma. Southern Communication Journal, 54, 74-92. DOI:

Mumby, D. K. (1989). Ideology and the social construction of meaning: A communication Perspective. Communication Quarterly, 34, 291-304. DOI:

Pavitt, C. (1999). The third way: Scientific realism and communication theory. Communication Theory, 9, 162-188. DOI:

Ramanathan, V. (2005). Ambiguities About English: Ideologies and critical practice in vernacular-medium college classrooms in Gujarat, India. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 4, 45-65 DOI:

Ruud, G. (2000). The Symphony: Organizational discourse and the symbolic tensions between artistic and business ideologies. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 28, 117-142. DOI:

Salmon, C. T. (1992). Bridging theory "of" and theory "for" communication campaigns: An essay on ideology and public policy. Communication Yearbook, 15, 346-357. DOI:

Sigman, S. J.& Fry, D. L. (1985). Differential ideology and language use: Readers' reconstructions and descriptions of news events. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 2, 307-322. DOI:

Soar, M. (2000). Encoding advertisements: Ideology and Meaning in Advertising Production. Mass Communication & Society, 3/4, 415-437. DOI:

Sparks, C. (1989). Experience, ideology, and articulation: Stuart Hall and the development of culture. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 13, 78-87. DOI:

Steuter, E. (1990). Understanding the media/terrorism relationship: An analysis of ideology and the news in time magazine. Political Communication & Persuasion, 7, 257-278. DOI:

Storey, J. (1993). British cultural studies: An introduction, 197-225. New York and London: Routledge.

Turner, B.S. (1992). Ideology and utopia in the formation of the intelligentsia: Reflections on the English cultural conduit. Theory, Culture and Society, 9, 183-210. DOI:

Wang, M. (1991). Who is dominating whose ideology? New York Times reporting on China. Asian Journal of Communication, , 2, 51-69. DOI:

West, J. T. (1993). Ethnography and ideology: The politics of cultural representation. Western Journal of Communication, 57, 209-220. DOI:

Worsley, P. (1988). Elite ideologies in conflict with third world peoples. Media Development, 35(1), 14-17. Retrieved December 20, 2007, from Communication & Mass Media Complete database.

Wright, R. L.& Hailu, H. F. (1988-1989). Conceptualizing language as ideology. Howard Journal of Communications, 1, 174-186. DOI:


Haibin Dong (Primary Contact)
Author Biography

Haibin Dong, Department of Communication & Journalism, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA

Haibin Dong is a PhD candidate with concentration on intercultural communication in the Department of Communication and Journalism of University of New Mexico. His research interests include the complexity of cultural identity, the aesthetics of intercultural communication, rhetorical criticism of cultural symbolisms, and theory of artistic production from a cultural/intercultural perspective. This paper was revised from the original version, which has been accepted by the annual conference of National Communication Association (NCA International/Intercultural Communication Division) held in Chicago, IL, USA 2007.

Dong, H. (2008). Ideology Complexity Model: Towards the soul-searching communication. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 8(3), 1–14.

Article Details

Smart Citations via scite_
  • Abstract 82
  • Download PDF 40