Negotiation Strategies Employed in Difficult Situations - Focus on Japanese and American University Students

Junko Kobayashi (1) , Linda Viswat (2)
(1) Kansai Gaidai University 16-1 Nakamiyahigashino-cho Hirakata Osaka 573-1001 JAPAN , Japan
(2) Otemon Gakuin University 2-1-15 Nishiai Ibaraki Osaka 567-8502 JAPAN , Japan

Abstract

This paper deals with negotiation situations in which Japanese and American university students encounter difficulties, and compares and contrasts negotiation strategies employed by the two parties to resolve those problems. A preliminary survey and a new questionnaire extracted from the preliminary survey results were organized and distributed to both Japanese and American university students. The results based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative analyses have identified many cultural differences and some common characteristics. While keeping cultural characteristics in mind, we need to view negotiation situations from multi-dimensional perspectives by taking contextual factors such as verbal agreements, life experiences and personal relationships into consideration. This paper explores the use of better negotiation strategies in intercultural interactions.negotiation strategies

Full text article

Generated from XML file

References

Adair, W.L., Okumura, T. & Brett, J.M. (2001). Negotiation behavior when cultures collide: The United States and Japan. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 371-385. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.371

Ferraro., G.P. (1994). The cultural dimension of international business (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Fisher, G. (1994). International negotiation: Cross-cultural perception. In Weaver, G.R. (Ed.), Culture, communication and conflict: Readings in intercultural relations (pp.479-485). MA: Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing.

Fisher, R., & Ury, W., & Patton, B. (1991). Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement without giving in (2nd ed.) NY: Penguin Books.

Gelfand, M.J., Nishii, L.H., Holcombe, K.M., Dyer, N., Ohbuchi, K., & Fukuno, M. (2001). Cultural influences on cognitive representations of conflict: Interpretations of conflict episodes in the United States and Japan. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1059-74. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.6.1059

Harvard Business School Press. (2004). Winning negotiations that preserve relationships. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Hodgson, J.D., Sano, Y., & Graham, J.L. (2008). Doing business with the new Japan (2nd ed.). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefiled Publishers.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Hofstede, G. (1991). Culture and organizations: Software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill.

Kawakita, J. (1967). Hasso hou [Creativity techniques]. Tokyo: Chukoshinsho.

Kawakita, J. (1970). Zoku hasso hou [The second series of creativity techniques]. Tokyo: Chukoshinsho.

Kinoshita, K. (2009). Nihongo no shikohou [Japanese ways of thinking]. Tokyo: Chukobunko.

Lewicki, R.J., Sauders, D.M. & Barry, B. (2006). Negotiation (5th ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill.

Lustig, M.W., & Koester, J. (2010). Intercultural competence: Interpersonal communication across cultures (6th ed.) Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Malhotra, D., & Bazerman, M.H. (2007). Negotiation genius. NY: Bantam.

McDaniel, E.R., & Quasha, S. (2000). The communicative aspects of doing business in Japan. In L.A. Samovar, & R.E. Porter (Eds.), Intercultural communication: A reader (pp.312-324). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Nakane, C. (1984). Japanese society. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle.

Nakashima, Y. (2000). Koushouryoku. [Negotiation skills]. Tokyo: Kodansha.

Nakayama, O. (1989). Bokashi no shinri. [Psychology of ambiguity] Tokyo: Sogensha.

Nakayama, O. (2001). Senryakutekishiko ga dekinai nihonjin [Japanese who don’t have strategic thought]. Tokyo: Chikuma.

Nishiyama, K. (2000). Doing business with Japan: Successful strategies for intercultural communication. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Onodera, H. (2003). Eigo wa ronri [English values logic]. Tokyo: Kobunsha.

Oohashi, M. (2007). Makenai koushoujyutsu [Art of non-losing negotiation]. Tokyo: Daiamondo.

Pruitt, D.G. (1994). Achieving integrative agreements in negotiation. In Weaver, G.R. (Ed.), Culture, communication and conflict: Readings in intercultural relations (pp.487-497). MA: Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing.

Sakuma, M. (2007). Koushouryoku nyumon (3rd ed.) [Introduction to negotiation skills]. Tokyo: Nihonkeizai.

Samovar, L.A., & Porter, R.E. (2001). Communication between cultures (4th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Stewart, E.C., & Bennett, M.J. (1991). American cultural patterns: A cross-cultural perspective (rev. ed.) Yarmouth: Intercultural Press.

Tamura, J., Isshiki, M., & Sumida, K (2010). Koushogaku nyuumon [Introduction to negotiation]. Tokyo: Nihonkeizaishinbun.

Tenhover, G.R. (1994). American-Japanese negotiations. In Weaver, G.R. (Ed.), Culture, communication and conflict: Readings in intercultural relations. (pp.525-530). MA: Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing.

Ting-Toomey, S. (2000). Managing intercultural conflicts effectively. In L.A. Samovar, & R.E. Porter (Eds.), Intercultural communication: A reader (pp.388-400). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Ting-Toomey, S, & Oetzel, J.G. (2001). Managing intercultural conflict effectively. Thousand Oaks: Sage. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452229485

Triandis, H.C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Viswat, L., & Kobayashi, J. (2012). Negotiation styles—Similarities and differences between American and Japanese university students—. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v12i1.592

Wade-Benzoni, K.A., Okumura, T., Brett, J.M., Moore, D.A., Tenbrunsel, A.E., & Bazerman, M.H. (2002). Cognition and behavior in asymmetric social dilemmas: A comparison of two cultures. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 87, 87-95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.1.87

Authors

Junko Kobayashi
kjunko@kansaigaidai.ac.jp (Primary Contact)
Linda Viswat
Author Biographies

Junko Kobayashi, Kansai Gaidai University 16-1 Nakamiyahigashino-cho Hirakata Osaka 573-1001 JAPAN

Junko Kobayashi is an associate professor at Kansai Gaidai University. She is the author of 12 English textbooks on intercultural communication.

Linda Viswat, Otemon Gakuin University 2-1-15 Nishiai Ibaraki Osaka 567-8502 JAPAN

Linda Viswat is a professor at Otemon Gakuin University where she teaches courses in intercultural communication. Her research has focused on sojourner adjustment, learning strategies of Japanese university students, motivation, and the development of a learning community.

Kobayashi, J., & Viswat, L. (2016). Negotiation Strategies Employed in Difficult Situations - Focus on Japanese and American University Students. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 16(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v16i1.710

Article Details

Smart Citations via scite_