Drug abuse has been proven to be a mental disorder because of the heavy intake of substances usage controlled by the environment. Environmental factors play a significant role in drug addiction and recovery. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding environmental factors contributing to relapse and hinder motivation for recovery among drug addicts in Malaysia. Therefore, the objective of this research is to find out the impact of the environment on drug relapse and motivation recovery in former addicts. For this purpose, a cross-sectional research design was utilized whereby a self-administered questionnaire was randomly distributed among 50 Malaysian drug addicts. Data were analysed through IBM SPSS software version 25.0, and the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) approach supported by Smart-PLS 3.3 to analyse the research model. The findings of the study indicated that the environment significantly impacts motivation recovery and relapse. Furthermore, the positive environment influences motivation for recovery in former addicts and pushes the addicts to relapse after rehabilitation. The study will provide insights into the environmental factors that contribute to drug addiction and relapse in Malaysia.
Full text article
Abdollahi, Z., Taghizadeh, F., Hamzehgardeshi, Z., & Bahramzad, O. (2014). Relationship between addiction relapse and self-efficacy rates in injection drug users referred to Maintenance Therapy Center of Sari, 1391. Global journal of health science, 6(3), 138. https://doi.org/10.5539%2Fgjhs.v6n3p138
Afkar, A., Rezvani, S. M. & Sigaroudi, A. E. (2017). Measurement of factors influencing the relapse of addiction: A factor analysis. International Journal of High-Risk Behaviors and Addiction, 6(3). https://doi.org/10.5812/ijhrba.3214
Amat, M.A. C., Ahmad, J., Jailani, O., Jaafar, W.M.W. & Zaremohzzabieh, Z. (2020). Relapse among drug addicts in East Coast Malaysia: A qualitative study of risk factors. Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 10(12), 432-447. https://doi:10.6007/IJARBSS/v10-i12/8337
Ashrafi Hafez, A., Kazemeini, T. & Shayan, S. (2014). The relationship of social support and religious orientation with relapse rates in opioid-dependent patients under methadone maintenance therapy. Journal of School of Nursing and Midwifery of Shahid Beheshti University, 24(84), 35–44.
Azmi, A. A., Hussin, H., Ishak, S. I. D. & Daud, N. S. (2018). Drug addicts: Psychosocial factor contributing to relapse. In MATEC Web of Conferences, 150, p.p. 05097. EDP Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201815005097
Back, S. E., Hartwell, K., DeSantis, S. M., Saladin, M., McRae-Clark, A. L., Price, K. L., &Brady, K. T. (2010). Reactivity to laboratory stress provocation predicts relapse to cocaine. Drug and alcohol dependence, 106(1), 21-27.https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.07.016
Barati, M., Bashirian, S., Mohammadi, Y. et al. (2023). An ecological approach to exploring factors affecting substance use relapse: a systematic review. J Public Health (Berl.) 31, 135–148. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-020-01412-x
Barhoumi, W., & Algharbawi, F. A. (2021). The societal views for addiction recoverees’ in the UAE Society’. Al-Adab Journal, 1(139), 65-96. https://doi.org/10.31973/aj.v1i139.1440
Bashirian, S., Barati, M., Mohammadi, Y., Zarnagh, H. G., & Bagheri, S. (2021). Predictors of drug abuse relapse for Iranian addicted women: an application of social cognitive theory. Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment, 20(4), 260-267. http://doi.org/10.1097/ADT.0000000000000249
Bassuk, E. L., Hanson, J., Greene, R. N., Richard, M., & Laudet, A. (2016). Peer-Delivered Recovery Support Services for Addictions in the United States: A Systematic Review. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 63, 1-9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2016.01.003
Beraldo, L., Gil, F., Ventriglio, A., de Andrade, A. G., da Silva, A. G., Torales, J., Gonçalves, P. D., Bhugra, D., & Castaldelli-Maia, J. M. (2018). Spirituality, Religiosity and Addiction Recovery: Current Perspectives. Current Drug Research Reviews, 11(1), 26-32. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874473711666180612075954
Bermas, H., & Masooleh, S. M. T. (2011). Review and comparison of affective family factors in prevention of drug abuse in view of university masters, mental health specialist and families. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 12, 520-535. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.02.064
Birtel, M. D., Wood, L., & Kempa, N. J. (2017). Stigma and social support in substance abuse: Implications for mental health and well-being. Psychiatry research, 252, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.097
Brown, B., O’Donnell, E., & Casalino, L. P. (2020). Private equity investment in behavioral health treatment centers. JAMA psychiatry, 77(3), 229-230.https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.3880
Cady, M. E., Winters, K. C., Jordan, D. A., Solberg, K. B., & Stinchfield, R. D. (1996). Motivation to change as a predictor of treatment outcome for adolescent substance abusers. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 5(1), 73-91. https://doi.org/10.1300/J029v05n01_04
Cahill, M. A., Adinoff, B., Hosig, H., Muller, K., & Pulliam, C. (2003). Motivation for treatment preceding and following a substance abuse program. Addictive Behaviors, 28(1), 2232–2244. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(01)00217-9
Carvalho, J. V., Rocha, Á., van de Wetering, R., & Abreu, A. (2019). A Maturity model for hospital information systems. Journal of Business Research, 94, 388-399.
Caspi, J., Lardier, D. T., & Barrios, V. R. (2018). The Double Bind of Siblings in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(7), 2232–2244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1068-6
Chan, G. H. Y., Lo, T. W., Tam, C. H. L., & Lee, G. K. W. (2019). Intrinsic motivation and psychological connectedness to drug abuse and rehabilitation: The perspective of self-determination. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(11), 1934. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111934
Chen, G. (2006). Social support, spiritual program, and addiction recovery. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50(3), 306–323. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X05279038
Chie, Q. T., Tam, C. L., Bonn, G., Dang, H. M., & Khairuddin, R. (2016). substance abuse, relapse, and Treatment Program evaluation in Malaysia: Perspective of rehab Patients and staff Using the Mixed Method approach. Frontiers in psychiatry, 7, 90. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00090
Chie, Q. T., Tam, C. L., Bonn, G., Wong, C. P., Dang, H. M., & Khairuddin, R. (2015). Drug Abuse, Relapse, and Prevention Education in Malaysia: Perspective of University Students Through a Mixed Methods Approach. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 6(65), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00065
Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach for structural equation modeling. In G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern methods for business research (pp. 295–336). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Corrigan, P. W., Kuwabara, S. A. & O’Shaughnessy, J. (2009). The Public Smear of Mental Illness and Drug Addiction Findings from a stratified random sample. Journal of Social Work, 9(2), 139. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468017308101818
de Costa, A.S. (2019). Drug Rehabilitation: Is it effective in decreasing the drug epidemic on Long Island, New York [Selected Full-Text Master Theses Collection 2018-. 6]. https://digitalcommons.liu.edu/post_under_theses/6 (Accessed 30 September 2019)
de Vogel, V., Stam, J., Bouman, Y. H., Ter Horst, P., & Lancel, M. (2022). Gender differences in substance abuse history and offending behavior: a multicentre study in Dutch forensic psychiatry. Journal of Forensic Psychology Research and Practice, 22(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/24732850.2021.1945833
de Waele, I., & van Hove, G. (2005). Modern times: An ethnographic study on the quality of life of people with a high support need in a Flemish residential facility. Disability and Society, 20(6), 625-639. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687590500249041
Deepti, S. S., Kaur, S., & Kaur, J. (2014). A study of drug relapse and its associated factors among cases admitted in Swami Vivekananda Drug De-addiction Centre, GMC, Amritsar. Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Research, 2(2), 100-105.
DeJong, S. M., Balasanova, A. A., Frank, A., Ruble, A. E., Frew, J. R., Hoefer, M. & Schwartz, A.C. (2022). Addiction teaching and training in the general psychiatry setting. Academic Psychiatry, 46(3), 381-388. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40596-021-01431-0
Dobkin, P. L., de Civita, M., Paraherakis, A., & Gill, K. (2002). The role of functional social support in treatment retention and outcomes among outpatient adult substance abusers. Addiction, 97(3), 347-356. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2002.00083.x
Eddie, D., Hoffman, L., Vilsaint, C., Abry, A., Bergman, B., Hoeppner, B., Weinstein, C., & Kelly, J. F. (2019). Lived experience in new models of care for substance use disorder: A systematic review of peer recovery support services and recovery coaching. In Frontiers in Psychology, 10(JUN), 1052. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01052
Erdoğan Kaya, A., Yazici, A. B., Kaya, M., & Yazici, E. (2021). The relationship between expressed emotion, personality traits and prognosis of alcohol and substance addiction: 6-month follow-up study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 75(8), 596-606. https://doi.org/10.1080/08039488.2021.1916835
Fallahzadeh, H. & Hosseini, N. (2006). The study of the causes of relapse in addicts referring to Behzisti of Yazd, 2000. Tolooe Behdasht, 5(1–2), 67–73. https://doi.org/10.4103%2Fjehp.jehp_984_20
Fauziah, I., Arifin, Z., Shahrazad, W. S. W., Lukman, Z. M., Murni, A. R. R., Zainah, A. Z., & Fatihah, G. S. (2010). Measuring motivational readiness for change among drug addicts in Malaysia: A descriptive analysis. Social Sciences, 5(5), 429 - 432. https://doi.org/10.3923/sscience.2010.429.432
Feldman, E. & Teller, D. (2022). Recognizing and Treating Substance Use Disorders - proquest. Primary Care Reports, 28(2).
Finch, A. J., Tanner-Smith, E., Hennessy, E., & Moberg, D. P. (2018). Recovery high schools: Effect of schools supporting recovery from substance use disorders. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 44(2), 175-184. https://doi.org/10.1080/00952990.2017.1354378
Foo, Y. C., Tam, C. L. & Lee, T. H. (2012). Family factors and peer influence in drug abuse: a study in rehabilitation centre. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health, 4(3), 190 – 201.
Fox, A. D., Maradiaga, J., Weiss, L., Sanchez, J., Starrels, J. L., & Cunningham, C. O. (2015). Release from incarceration, relapse to opioid use and the potential for buprenorphine maintenance treatment: A qualitative study of the perceptions of former inmates with opioid use disorder. Addiction Science and Clinical Practice, 10(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13722- 014-0023-0
Garcia, O. F., Serra, E., Zacares, J. J., Calafat, A., & Garcia, F. (2020). Alcohol use and abuse and motivations for drinking and non-drinking among Spanish adolescents: do we know enough when we know parenting style? Psychology & health, 35(6), 645-664. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2019.1675660
Golestan, S., Namayandeh, H., & Anjomshoa, A. (2011). The Influence of Life Skills with respect to Self-Help Approach on Relapse Prevention in Iranian Adolescents Opiate Addicts. Journal of American Science, 7(6), 053504(2006) https://doi.org/00989133436185.
Gouws, E., Sanet, B., & Kruger, N. (2003). The Adolescent. Heinemann.
Greenberg, R., Brooks, C. S., & Fitzgerald, K.R. (1998). Families in Recovery: Coming Full Circle. Family Relations, 47(1), 113–114. https://doi.org/10.2307/584862
Grodin, E. N., Lim, A. C., MacKillop, J., Karno, M. P. & Ray, L. A. (2019). An examination of motivation to change and neural alcohol cue reactivity following a brief intervention. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10(JUN), 408. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00408
Haghighi M, Alizadeh F, Rezaei T, Rezakhani Moghaddam H, Sodaei Zenoozagh H, & Mohammadpoorasl A. (2018). Environmental and Personal Factors Associated with Addiction Relapse in Referral patients to Marand Treatment Centers. Journal of Community Health Research, 7(2), 63–73.
Hair Jr., J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage publications.
Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V.G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research. In European Business Review, 26(2), 106-121. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-10-2013-0128
Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Gudergan, S. P. (2018). Advanced Issues in Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. https://doi.org/10.3926/oss.37
Harris Jr., T.B. (2019). Applied Theory Research on Environmental Stressors Impacting Substance Use Relapse in San Francisco’s Tenderloin Disctrict [PHD Dissertaion]. In ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Capella University.
Hassan, M. S., al Halbusi, H., Razali, A., Ariffin, R. N. R., & Williams, K. A. (2022). The Swedish gamble: trust in the government and self-efficacy in the battle to combat COVID-19. Current Psychology, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-022-02947-w
Hassan, M. S., Ariffin, R. N. R., Mansor, N. & al Halbusi, H. (2021). The Moderating Role of Willingness to Implement Policy on Street-level Bureaucrats’ Multidimensional Enforcement Style and Discretion. International Journal of Public Administration, 46(6), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/01900692.2021.2001008
Henseler, J. (2017). Partial least squares path modeling. In Advanced methods for modeling markets (pp. 361–381). Springer.
Hiller, M. L., Knight, K., Leukefeld, C., & Simpson, D. D. (2002). Motivation as a predictor of therapeutic engagement in mandated residential substance abuse treatment. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 29(1) 56–75. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854802029001004
Hong, P., Li, S., Yu, Y., & Deng, Q. (2021). How to Enhance the Motivation for Drug Detoxification: Consciousness Guidance and Behaviour Restriction of Family Intergenerational Ethics. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(1), 366. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010366
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
Huit, G. T. M., Hair, J. F., Proksch, D., Sarstedt, M., Pinkwart, A. & Ringle, C. M. (2018). Addressing Endogeneity in International Marketing Applications of Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling. Journal of International Marketing, 26(3), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1509/jim.17.0151
Ibrahim, F., & Kumar, N. (2009). Factors effecting drug relapse in Malaysia: An empirical evidence. Asian Social Science, 5(12), 37-44. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v5n12p37
Ibrahim, F., Talib, M. A., Samah, B. A., & Sabran, M. S. (2008). Family Support and Tendency of Relapse among Drug Addicts in Malaysia. Journal of Social Policy and Society, 5,181–193.
Ikanovitasari, C., Anindhita, P. B., & Sefa, R. M. (2021). Description of resilience to former formed drug users at peka single house. European Journal of Psychological Research, 8(1).
Ismail, R., Abdul Manaf, M. R., Hassan, M. R., Mohammed Nawi, A., Ibrahim, N., Lyndon, N., ... & Kamarubahrin, A. F. (2022). Prevalence of Drug and Substance Use among Malaysian Youth: A Nationwide Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(8), 4684 https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084684
Ismail, R., Abdul Manaf, M. R., Hassan, M. R., Mohammed Nawi, A., Ibrahim, N., Lyndon, N. & Kamarubahrin, A. F. (2022). Prevalence of Drug and Substance Use among Malaysian Youth: A Nationwide Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(8), 4684 https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084684
Jason, L. A., Guerrero, M., Salomon-Amend, M., Light, J. M., & Stoolmiller, M. (2021). Personal and environmental social capital predictors of relapse following departure from recovery homes. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 28(5), 504-510. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687637.2020.1856787
Jason, L. A., Guerrero, M., Salomon‐Amend, M., Stevens, E., Light, J. M., & Stoolmiller, M. (2021). Context Matters: Home‐level But Not Individual‐Level Recovery Social Capital Predicts Residents’ Relapse. American Journal of Community Psychology, 67(3-4), 392-404. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12481
Kabisa, E., Biracyaza, E., Habagusenga, J. D. A. & Umubyeyi, A. (2021). Determinants and prevalence of relapse among patients with substance use disorders: case of Icyizere Psychotherapeutic Centre. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 16(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-021-00347-0
Kelly, J. F., & Greene, M. C. (2014). Beyond motivation: Initial validation of the commitment to sobriety scale. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 46(2), 257-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2013.06.010
Knapp, K. S., Brick, T. R., Bunce, S. C., Deneke, E., & Cleveland, H.H. (2021). Daily meaningfulness among patients with opioid use disorder: Examining the role of social experiences during residential treatment and links with post-treatment relapse. Addictive Behaviors, 119, 106914. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.106914
Kosteniuk, B., Salvalaggio, G., McNeil, R., Brooks, H. L., Dong, K., Twan, S., ... & Hyshka, E. (2021). “You don’t have to squirrel away in a staircase”: Patient motivations for attending a novel supervised drug consumption service in acute care. International Journal of Drug Policy, 96, 103275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103275
Lang, M. A., & Belenko, S. (2000). Predicting retention in a residential drug treatment alternative to prison program. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 19(2) 145-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0740-5472(00)00097-0
Lian, T. C. & Chu, F. Y. (2013). A qualitative study on drug abuse relapse in Malaysia: contributory factors and treatment effectiveness. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health, 5(4), 0-0.
Low, W. Y., Zulkifli, S. N., Yusof, K., Batumalail, S. & Aye, K.W. (1996). The drug abuse problem in Peninsular Malaysia: parent and child differences in knowledge, attitudes and perceptions. Drug and alcohol dependence, 42(2), 105-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-8716(96)01265-3
Macleod, J., Hickman, M. & Smith, G. D. (2005). Reporting bias and self-reported drug use. In Addiction, 100(4), 562-563. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01099.x
Maegley, T. R. (2022). Risk and protective factors for addiction among individuals in substance abuse treatment (Order No. 29282233). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (2688472596). Retrieved from: http://eserv.uum.edu.my/dissertations-theses/risk-protective-factors-addiction-among/docview/2688472596/se-2
Malaysia, D. of S. (2022, November 25). Drug addiction. OpenDOSM. https://open.dosm.gov.my/drug-addiction (accessed 23 March 2023).
Martini, F., Fregna, L., Bosia, M., Perrozzi, G. & Cavallaro, R. (2022). Substance-related disorders. In Fundamentals of Psychiatry for Health Care Professionals (pp. 263-295). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
Mattoo, S. K., Chakrabarti, S., & Anjaiah, M. (2009). Psychosocial factors associated with relapse in men with alcohol or opioid dependence. Indian J Med Res, 130(6), 702–708.
Miller, W. R. (1985). Motivation for Treatment. A Review with Special Emphasis on Alcoholism In Psychological Bulletin, 98(1), 84. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.98.1.84
Mousali, A., Bashirian, S., Barati, M., Mohammadi, Y., Moeini, B., Moradveisi, L. & Sharma, M. (2021). Factors affecting substance use relapse among Iranian addicts. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 10(1), 129. https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_984_20
Mustapha, S. Z., Harith, N. H. M., & Tuan, T. N. (2020). Sustainable Drug Treatment and Rehabilitation Programme in Malaysia- Empowering the Client through '555 Note Book'. Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 10(14), 70-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v10-i14/7364
Navanethan, D., Poot, E. F. M., Vytialingam, N., Nazmul, M., & Maziz, H. (2021). Stigma, Discrimination, Treatment Effectiveness and Policy: Public Views About Drug Addiction in Malaysia. Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 15(2), 514-519.
Nunes, E. V., Gordon, M., Friedmann, P. D., Fishman, M. J., Lee, J. D., Chen, D. T., ... & O'Brien, C. P. (2018). Relapse to opioid use disorder after inpatient treatment: Protective effect of injection naltrexone. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 85, 49-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2017.04.016
Pantazis, C. B., Gonzalez, L. A., Tunstall, B. J., Carmack, S. A., Koob, G. F., & Vendruscolo, L. F. (2021). Cues conditioned to withdrawal and negative reinforcement: Neglected but key motivational elements driving opioid addiction. Science Advances, 7(15), (P2) P6, P7, and P8,eabf0364.https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abf0364
Parker, K. A., Roberson, L. B., Ivanov, B., Carter, R. E., & Riney, N. (2021). The Road to Recovery from Addiction: A Qualitative Exploration of Motivators and Challenges to Achieving Sobriety in Recovery Housing. International Journal of Health, Wellness & Society, 11(2), 159-172.
Paterno, M. T., Fiddian-Green, A., & Gubrium, A. (2018). Moms Supporting Moms: Digital Storytelling With Peer Mentors in Recovery From Substance Use. Health Promotion Practice, 19(6), 823-832. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524839917750816
Patrick, H., & Williams, G. C. (2012). Self-determination theory: its application to health behavior and complementarity with motivational interviewing. International Journal of Behaviour Nutrition and physical Activity, 9(1), 1-12.
Pelissier, B. & Jones, N. (2006). Differences in motivation, coping style, and self-efficacy among incarcerated male and female drug users. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 30(2), 823-832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2005.10.006
Polcin, D. L., Mahoney, E., Witbrodt, J., & Mericle, A. A. (2021). Recovery home environment characteristics associated with recovery capital. Journal of drug issues, 51(2), 253-267. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022042620978393
Rampersad, R. M. (2017). Understanding Attitudes of the Recently Immigrated Caribbean Individual Toward Alcohol Use and Misuse (Doctoral dissertation, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology).
Razali, A., & Madon, Z. (2020). Predictor Factor on Relapse among Former Addicts. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 10(16), 278–288. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v10-i16/8311
Reif, S., Braude, L., Lyman, D. R., Dougherty, R. H., Daniels, A. S., Ghose, S. S., Salim, O. & Delphin-Rittmon, M. E. (2014). Peer recovery support for individuals with substance use disorders: Assessing the evidence. In Psychiatric Services, 65(7), 853-861. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201400047
Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2008). A self-determination theory approach to psychotherapy: The motivational basis for effective change. Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 186. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012753
Sari, D. M., Fatah, M. Z., & Nurmala, I. (2021). Family’s Role in Helping Drug Abuser Recovery Process. Jurnal Promkes: The Indonesian Journal of Health Promotion and Health Education, 9(1), 59-68. https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.V9.I1.2021.59-68
Shaari, A. A. H. (2021). People in Recovery from Substance Use Disorders: What Motivates Them to Enter Addiction Treatment Agencies as Counselors? Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities 29 (4), 2315 – 2334.https://doi.org/10.47836/pjssh.29.4.12
Shafi, M. A. & Ramasamy, C. (2021). The Relationship between Factors of Drug Abuse and Perception among Youth in Malaysia. Research in Management of Technology and Business, 2(2), 86-91. https://doi.org/10.30880/rmtb.2021.02.02.007
Shafie, A. A. H. bin, Jailani, M. R. B. M., Miskam, N. A. B. A., Elias, F. A. B., & Wahab, H. B. A. (2018). The Impact of Integrated Psychospiritual Module among the Drug Addicts in Malaysia in Elevating the Psychospiritual and Drug-Related Locus of Control Level towards the decrease of Relapse Rate. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(3), 299–317. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v8-i3/392
Shafiei, E., Hoseini, A. F., Bibak, A., & Azmal, M. (2014). High risk situations predicting relapse in self-referred addicts to bushehr province substance abuse treatment centers. International Journal of high-risk behaviors & addiction, 3(2), e16381. https://doi.org/10.5812/ijhrba.16381
Simons, R. L., Johnson, C., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. (1998). A test of latent trait versus life- course perspectives on the stability of adolescent antisocial behavior. Criminology, 36(2), 217-244. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1998.tb01247.x
Skeen, S., Laurenzi, C. A., Gordon, S. L., du Toit, S., Tomlinson, M., Dua, T., ... & Melendez-Torres, G. J. (2019). Adolescent mental health program components and behavior risk reduction: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 144(2). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-3488
Stevens P. & Smith R. L. (2005). Substance Abuse Counseling: Theory and Practice (3rd ed.). Merrill Prentice Hall.
Strang, J., Volkow, N. D., Degenhardt, L., Hickman, M., Johnson, K., Koob, G. F., ... & Walsh, S. L. (2020). Opioid use disorder. Nature reviews Disease primers, 6(1), 3. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-019-0137-5
Tucker, J. A., Vuchinich, R. E., & Gladsjo, J. A. (1991). Environmental influences on relapse in substance use disorders. International Journal of the Addictions, 25(sup7), 1017-1050. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826089109071032
Vbrazhko. (n.d.) (2021). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. UNODC World Drug Report 2021: pandemic effects ramp up drug risks, as youth underestimate cannabis dangers. https://www.unodc.org/centralasia/en/news/unodc-world-drug-report-2021_-pandemic-effects-ramp-up-drug-risks--as-youth-underestimate-cannabis-dangers.html (Accessed 10 July 2022).
Villegas, P. S. L. (2022). The Relapse Prevention Plan for Aftercare Patients of City of San Jose Del Monte Anti-Drug Abuse Council. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 7(5), ISSN No:-2456-2165
Wogen, J., & Restrepo, M. T. (2020). Human rights, stigma, and substance use. Health and Human Rights, 22(1), 51.
Xu, S., Zhang, K., & Luo, T. (2021). Development of the Risk of Relapse Assessment Scale for methamphetamine abusers in China. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 227, 108992. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108992
Yusay, C. T. C., & Canoy, N. A. (2019). Healing the hurt amid the drug war: Narratives of young urban poor Filipinos in recovering families with parental drug use. International Journal of Drug Policy, 68, 124-131.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.10.009
Zainudin, A. M., Ibrahim, N. N. I. N., Hou, L. J., Rasool, A. H. G., Ramli, N., Miran, H. & Yusuf, W. N. W. (2022). Urine Drugs of Abuse Testing at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia: A Review of Trends from 2009–2019. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences, 18 (2), 58-63.
Zeng, R., Wang, L., & Xie, Y. (2016). An analysis of factors influencing drinking relapse among patients with alcohol-induced psychiatric and behavioral disorders. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry, 28(3), 147–153. https://doi.org/10.11919/j.issn.1002-0829.216009
Zeng, X. & Tan, C. (2021). The relationship between the family functioning of individuals with drug addiction and relapse tendency: a moderated mediation model. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(2), 625. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020625
Zhang, S., Huang, H., Wu, Q., Li, Y. & Liu, M. (2019). The impacts of family treatment drug court on child welfare core outcomes: A meta-analysis. Child abuse & neglect, 88, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.10.014
Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of personality assessment, 52(1), 30-41. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_2
Zironi, I., Burattini, C., Aicardi, G., & Janak, P. H. (2006). Context is a trigger for relapse to alcohol. Behavioural brain research, 167(1), 150-155 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2005.09.007
Copyright (c) 2023 Asbah Razali, Norhidayah Pauzi, Ravindaran A/L Maraya, Rosya Izyanie Shamshudeen, Nur Azah Razali, Muhammad Luqman
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright / Open Access Policy: This journal provides immediate free open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of ideas and is distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). But the copyright was retained by the authors. Articles are free for personal use but are protected by copyright in the sense that they may not be used for purposes other than personal use without permission.