Being ill in a foreign country: International students’ trust in American physicians

Pavica Sheldon (1)
(1) Department of Communication Studies, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA, United States

Abstract

A survey with 169 international students was conducted to investigate the relationship between trust in American physicians and students’ locus of control, nationality, sex, and years of being in the United States, the number of American friends, the number of international friends, and the number of doctor’s visits. Results revealed that international students with an internal locus of control had a greater degree of trust in American physicians than students with an external locus of control. Students with more American friends did not trust their physicians more than students with fewer American friends. International students who stayed in the United States for a longer period also did not trust their physicians more than students who stayed for a shorter time. No difference existed in trust between male and female and between European and non-European students. Findings are somewhat opposite of what we would expect based on other cross-cultural adjustment studies.

Full text article

Generated from XML file

References

Anderson, L.A. and Dedrick, R.F. (1990). Development of the trust in physician scale: a measure to assess interpersonal trust in patient-physician relationships. Psychology Reports, 67, 1091-100. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1990.67.3f.1091

Black, J.S. (1990). Locus of control, social support, stress and adjustment in international transfers. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 7(1), 1-29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01731881

Caterinicchio, R.P. (1979). Testing plausible path models of interpersonal trust in patient-physician treatment relationships. Social Science in Medicine, 13, 81-99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0271-7123(79)90011-7

Chen, Z.J. (2000). International students’ preparation for and adaptation to the American higher educational system: A study of cross-cultural communication. World Communication, 29, 25-48.

Cheng, H.C. (2004). Being ill in a foreign land: international students’ perceptions of and experiences with university health services. Kaleidoscope: A Graduate Journal of Qualitative Communication Research, 3, 70-92.

Chesebro, J. (1982). Illness as a rhetorical act: A cross-cultural perspective. Communication Quarterly, 20, 321-331. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01463378209369468

Cui, G., van den Berg, S. and Jiang, Y. (1998). Cross-cultural adaptation and ethnic communication: Two structural equation models. The Howard Journal of Communication, 9, 69-85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/106461798247122

Davis, W.L. and Phares, E.J. (1967). Internal-external control as a determinant of information-seeking in a social influence situation. Journal of Personality, 35, 547-561. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1967.tb01447.x

Donald, F. (1985). Providing health care for international students. In J. C. Naughton, ed. Health care for the international student: Asia and the Pacific. DC: Information Agency, 1-8.

Ebbin, A. and Blankenship, E. (1986). A longitudinal health care study: International versus domestic students. International Students and Foreign Travel, 34, 177-188. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.1986.9939634

Goold, S.D. (1998). Money and trust: relationships between patients, physicians, and health plans. Journal of Health and Political Policy Law, 23, 687-95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/03616878-23-4-687

Grumbach, K., Selby, J.V., Damberg C. et al. (1999). Resolving the gatekeeper conundrum: what patients value in primary care and referrals to specialists. JAMA, 282, 261-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.3.261

Gurtman, M.B. (1992). Trust, distrust, and interpersonal problems: a circumplex analysis. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology, 62, 989-1002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.62.6.989

Hall, M.A., Dugan, E., Balkrishnan, R., Zheng, B., Camacho, F. and Bradley, D. (2001). The effects on trust of disclosing HMO physician incentives. Unpublished manuscript. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.21.2.197

Hall, M.A., Zheng, B., Dugan et al. (2002). Measuring patients’ trust in their primary care providers. Medical Care Research and Review. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077558702059003004

Hoffman, D.L., Novak, T. P. and Schlosser, A.E. (2003). Locus of control, web use, and consumer attitudes toward Internet regulation. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 22, 41-57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1509/jppm.22.1.41.17628

Institute of International Education ( 2006, November 13). New enrollment of foreign students in the U.S. climbs in 2005/06. Available from http://opendoors.iienetwork.org/?p=89251 [Accessed January 30, 2007]

Janssen, T. and Carton, J.S. (1999). The effects of locus of control and task difficulty in on procrastination. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 160, 436-442. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00221329909595557

Kaplowitz, M.D., Hadlock, T.D., & Levine, R. (2004). Comparison of web and mail survey comparison rate. Public Opinion Quarterly, 68(1), 94-101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfh006

Kim, Y.Y. (1988). Communication and cross-cultural adaptation: An integrative theory. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Kim, Y.Y. (1995). Cross-cultural adaptation: An integrative theory. In R. L. Wiseman, ed., Intercultural communication theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 170-193.

Kim, J.J. (2001). Becoming intercultural: An integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452233253

Kao A.C., Green D.C., Zaslavsky, A.M., Koplan, J.P. and Cleary, P.D. (1998). The relationship between method of physician payment and patient trust. JAMA, 280, 1708-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.280.19.1708

Kao A.C., Green D.C., Davis, N.A., Koplan, J.P. and Cleary, P. D. (1998b). Patient’s trust in their physicians: Effects of choice, continuity, and payment method. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 13, 681-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.1998.00204.x

Kramer, M., Wayne, S. and Jaworski, R. (2001). Sources of support and expatriate performance. The mediating role of expatriate adjustment. Personal Psychology, 54, 71-101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2001.tb00086.x

Lachman, M.E. and Leff, R. (1989). Perceived control and intellectual functioning in the elderly: a 5-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 25, 722-728. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.25.5.722

Lam, D. and Mizerski, D. (2005). The effects of locus of control on word-of-mouth communication. Journal of Marketing Communications, 11(3), 215-228. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1352726042000333180

Levenson, H. (1974). Activism and powerful others: distinctions within the concept of internal–external control. Journal of Personality Assessment, 38, 377–383. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.1974.10119988

Mechanic, D. and Schlesinger, M. (1996). The impact of managed care on patients’ trust in medical care and their physicians. JAMA, 275, 1693-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.275.21.1693

McClaran, D. and Sarris, R. (1985). International students and health: Their perceptions, behaviors and health care utilization. Michigan: Teaching and Teacher Education.

Miller, D. (1987). International students: Their effect on college health education. Heaalth Education, 18, 26-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00970050.1987.10616015

Parker, B. and McEvoy, G.M. (1993). Initial examination of a model of intercultural adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 17, 355-379. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(93)90039-B

Pearson, S.D. and Raeke, L.H. (2000). Patients’ trust in physicians: Many theories, few measures, and little data. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 15, 509-513. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2000.11002.x

Rotter, J.B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0092976

Safran, D.G., Kosinski, M., and Tarlow, A.R. (1998). The primary care assessment survey: tests of data quality and measurement performance. Medical Care, 36, 728-39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199805000-00012

Seipel, M.M.O. (1988). Locus of control as related to life experiences of Korean immigrants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12, 61-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(88)90007-7

Sharif, B. (1998). The forgotten world on campus: Acculturation and health issues of international students. The Health Educator, 30, 11-18.

Sheldon, P. (2008). Measuring host communication competence among international students in the United States. Unpublished manuscript.

Spector, R. (2000). Cultural diversity in health & illness. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice – Hall Inc.

Spector-Rodgers, J. (2001). Consensual and individual stereotypic beliefs about international students among American host nationals. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25, 639-657. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(01)00029-3

Thom, D.H., Hall, M.A. and Pawlson, G.L. (2004). Measuring patients’ trust in physicians when assessing quality of care. Health Affairs, 23, 124-132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.23.4.124

Thom, D.H., Ribisl, K.M. and Steward, A.L. (1999). Further validation and reliability testing of the trust in physician scale. Medical Care, 37, 510-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199905000-00010

Tsekouras, G.E. (2005). Modeling the cross-cultural adaptation process of immigrants using categorical data clustering. Presented at Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Intelligence for Modeling, Control and Automation and International Conference on Intelligent Agents, Web Technologies and Internet Commerce. Available from http://www.aegean.gr/culturaltec/tsekouras/Papers/IEEE%20Conf%20Comput%20Intell.pd[Accessed February 15, 2007] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/CIMCA.2005.1631298

Van Oudenhoven, J.P., Van der Zee, K.I. and Van Kooten, M. (2001). Succeful adaptation strategies according to expatriates. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25, 467-482. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(01)00018-9

Ward, C. and Kennedy, A. (1992). Locus of control, mode disturbance, and social difficulty during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16, 175-194. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(92)90017-O

Ward, C. and Kennedy, A. (1993). Where’s the "culture" in cross-cultural transition? Comparative studies of sojourner adjustment. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 24, 221-249. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022193242006

Wheeless, L.R., Erickson, K.V. and Segars Behrens, J. (1986). Cultural differences in disclosiveness as a function of locus of control. Communication Monographs, 53, 36-46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03637758609376124

Wiseman, R.L. (2002). Intercultural communication competence. In W. B. Gudykunst and B. Mody, eds., Handbook of international and intercultural communication. Newbury, CA: Sage, 207-224.

Authors

Pavica Sheldon
pjuric1@lsu.edu (Primary Contact)
Author Biography

Pavica Sheldon, Department of Communication Studies, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA

Pavica Sheldon is a doctoral student at Louisiana State University (LSU) in Baton Rouge, LA, USA. Originally from Croatia, Pavica received a Masters in mass communication at LSU in May 2006 and is now working toward a PhD in the Department of Communication Studies. Her research interests include intercultural communication, media psychology, and social networking.

Sheldon, P. (2009). Being ill in a foreign country: International students’ trust in American physicians. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 9(1), 1–07. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v9i1.476

Article Details

Smart Citations via scite_