Factors Influencing the Implementation of Tourism Culture: A Case Study
The tourism village is a concept that develops the unique potential of a town, whether in the form of the natural environment, economy, culture, or others. Through the Tourism Village, it is hoped that it can grow the tourism sector in the village, create and absorb labour, increase economic growth, and regional income, improve the welfare of the people in the village and its surroundings, overcome unemployment, preserve nature, the environment, and resources, and advance culture (Marlina, 2019; Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs, 2021; Jumriani et al., 2022). This goal can only be achieved if tourism culture truly becomes an object and attracts local, domestic, and foreign tourists.
Various factors influence the development of tourist villages. Its development requires planned, executed, and controlled management supported by transportation, accommodation, skilled labor, and other factors (Cahyana & Nugroho, 2019). Not only that, the success or failure of a Tourism Village also requires the involvement of stakeholders from the government (central and local), the private sector, and the local community (Nugroho, Rahman, & Kismartini, 2022). The government provides policies, motivators, and facilitators for implementing tourism villages. The private sector supports the implementation required by the Tourist Village, and the local community is the host and essential actor in the development of the Tourist Village. In particular, the role of the local community plays an important role as an actor in the development of a tourism village (Cahyana & Nugroho, 2019; Mtapuri, O., & Giampiccoli, A., 2019; Nugroho, Rahman & Kismartini, 2022).
Various cases show the failure of the arrangement of Tourism Villages to be less able to attract domestic and foreign tourists because it is allegedly constrained by these factors (N. F. Velnisa et al., 2014; Purwaningsih & Mahagangga, 2018; Niken & Arida, 2021; Jena & Dwivedi, 2021). Tourist villages are less able to achieve the expected goals, absorb labour, increase regional income, and significantly improve the welfare of the surrounding community. Internal and external constraints are often encountered in implementing Tourism Villages, so they do not develop as expected. Internal barriers come from within the village itself in the form of tourism products that are not packaged in an attractive way, limited funds, management organizations that do not manage products properly, and so on. External constraints come from outside the village, for example, the role of the local government, which does not support the implementation of tourism in its area, construction of transportation facilities, lack of accommodation, and others (N. F. Velnisa et al., 2014; Purwaningsih & Mahagangga, 2018; Jena & Dwivedi, 2021; Ramli et al., 2022).
Why are tourist villages less able to attract tourists? What are the factors that influence the implementation of a Tourism Village? This paper aims to find the answers to the following questions and explanation of the constraints of implementing a tourism village. The performance of tourism villages is thought to be influenced by various internal and external factors, including management of tourism potential, the role of local government, availability of infrastructure, involvement of private industry, and community participation. On the other hand, it is necessary to know the contribution of the strongest and weakest indicators of each factor studied.
These five factors are exogenous variables that influence the endogenous variables of Sustainable Tourism Village Development and then have an impact on regional income and community welfare. The novelty of this study is that the analysis is not limited to the relationship between variables but also the contribution of indicators to each variable. From the analysis of these indicators, it is hoped that conclusions can be drawn and provide the necessary recommendations to support the success and sustainability of tourist objects.
Review of Literature
Rural tourism is a new type of tourism and is relevant in developing its various potentials (Campón-Cerro, Hernández-Mogollón, & Alves, 2017). There are at least 6 (six) types of tourism potential that can be developed in the village: educational tourism, agro-tourism, nature tourism, cultural tourism, culinary tourism, and religious tourism. In simple terms, educational tourism is an activity carried out when visiting or travelling to an object to learn in order to gain experience and knowledge (Hatipoglu et al., 2014; Dembovska et al., 2016). Nature tourism is a recreational and tourism activity that utilizes natural potential to enjoy natural beauty, both unspoiled and cultivated or cultivated, whether in the form of mountain areas, lakes, beaches, hot springs, and so on (Purnama, Siahaan, & Widiastuti, 2018; Putri, Ardiansyah, & Arief, 2019). Ecotourism is responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, supports the well-being of local people, and involves interpretation and education (Gallagher, 2021). Even though it has a complex situation, cultural tourism can be interpreted as a type of tourism activity that utilizes culture as a tourist object (Richards, 2003; Eticon, 2021). Culinary tourism is travelling to an area or place that serves traditional food to gain new culinary experiences (Ignatov and Smith, 2006). Religious tourism is closely related to specific religious activities or locations (Chotib, 2015; Heidari et al., 2018).
The desire to achieve good results from the development of a Tourism Village requires good planning, goals and targets, adequate infrastructure, good marketing, and availability and absorption of manpower. The development of the potential of a tourism village must have clear objectives and concrete targets to be achieved (Fitari & Ma'rif, 2017; Junaid, 2020; Lòpez-Sanz et al., 2021; Abdo, 2021) and supported by infrastructure in the form of adequate physical facilities and infrastructure such as clean water supply, energy sources, waste handling, transportation and other services (Almeida & Machado, 2021; Sugiama, Oktavia, & Karlina, 2022; Ramli et al., 2022). The development of a tourist village also requires well-planned marketing so that the activities carried out can match the needs with the offer so that buyers (tourists) and sellers (agents, institutions, companies, communities, and others in the tourism business) benefit. each other (Mihailovic & Moric, 2012; Yoeti, 2013; Cheng et al., 2022). Another aspect is the availability and ability to absorb labour involved in the tourism business from skilled and unskilled workers in the formal and non-formal sectors (Agus & Sari, 2021).
Another factor that is thought to have influenced the development of the Tourism Village is the role of the local government. In line with the transition of the government system from originally centralized (centralized) to decentralized/autonomous, local governments are given greater authority in managing aspects of development in their region, except in the aspects of foreign policy, religion, finance/monetary, defence-security, and law (Law of the Republic of Indonesia No.23/2004). Even though the 2019-2024 government regime formed the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy within its cabinet, tourism management is one development aspect whose authority is delegated to local governments.
The main role of local government in developing tourism villages is as initiator, motivator, and facilitator. This role is manifested in at least 6 (six) aspects, namely: as initiator and activator, developing tourism organization and management, allocating funds for Village tourism development, supporting infrastructure needed for ease and smoothness of Tourism Villages, and encouraging private industry involvement and involvement community (Chili & Xulu, 2015; Cahyo & Nuryanti, 2018; Firdaus, Hardjosoekarto, & Lawang, 2021; Paristha, Arida, & Bhaskara, 2022; Liu et al. 2022).
Another consideration is infrastructure. Adequate infrastructure support is thought to influence the development of tourist villages. Infrastructure is a network of public facilities that serve and facilitate the establishment of tourism villages, both physical and non-physical (Spatari & Aktan, 2013; Dowd et al., 2018). Physical infrastructure is a type of public capital that includes roads, bridges, and sewer systems, among other things. Non-physical infrastructure includes clean water sources, electricity supply facilities, internet or telecommunications network facilities, and energy source facilities. Soft infrastructure is associated with value systems, norms or ethics, regulations, and public services, such as work ethics, public service quality, law, and others (Spatari & Aktan, 2013; Dowd et al., 2018).
The provision of transportation infrastructure (for example, roads, bridges, to public transportation) will provide convenience and smoothness to reach tourist objects, which is an important aspect of supporting its success. The provision of accommodation, clean water, electricity, internet and telecommunications networks, and so on are also supporters of the implementation of the Tourism Village. Equally important is the provision of shopping centres, information centres, and guard posts that can provide a sense of security and comfort to tourists visiting the Tourism Village. Implementing Tourism Villages also requires adequate regulatory support and quality and satisfying public services for tourists.
The involvement of the private sector is one of the factors thought to influence the implementation of the Tourism Village. Involvement can be interpreted as an intention or motivation generated by a certain stimulus or situation to create interest, enthusiasm, and attention to participate in it (Naderi, I., 2013). The involvement referred to here is the participation of large, medium, and small private industries in implementing Tourism Villages to obtain certain benefits or advantages. The cases of several countries show the importance of the private sector's contribution to driving the tourism sector's progress (Oskaria, 2019).
Various forms of involvement of the private sector, starting from the provision of infrastructure in the form of hotel/inn buildings, rental of buildings or trade locations, provision of play facilities, vehicle, and bicycle rentals, small and medium enterprises (crafts, culinary, etc.), organizing educational facilities and training, provision of manpower, and building relationships with the government and other parties.
Another factor is the involvement of the community around the tourist attraction. The success of a tourist village is the result of the joint work of various elements, one of which is the community (Junaid, 2020). This involvement can be directly or indirectly by individuals, groups, and social organizations around tourism objects, with the hope of obtaining income and increasing welfare (Nicely and Sydnor, 2015; Sung & Phillips, 2016). Various forms of community involvement can be realized, including organizing art performances (for example, dance, music, painting, etc.), providing public facilities (for example, parking lots, public toilets, places of worship, etc.), providing services (e.g., tour guides, massage services, and so on), and creating security, order, and comfort for tourists (e.g., giving security officers, cleaners, and so on).
These five variables are thought to influence endogenous variables for the development and sustainability of tourist villages, particularly their influence on regional income, community income, economic activity, employment, and population growth. Furthermore, the Tourism Village's development and sustainability variables are thought to influence regional income contribution and the welfare of the surrounding community. Local revenue assistance will be seen through increased local revenue, unemployment reduction, poverty reduction, and environmental development. While workers' skills, increased economic activity, social facilities, and increased people's income will all contribute to the community's well-being.
Based on the theoretical framework built, the research hypothesis is proposed as follows:
- Impact of village tourism potential, the Role of local government, infrastructure availability, private industry investment, and community participation on sustainable village tourism development in Indonesia.
- Impact of sustainable village tourism development on the regional revenue and community welfare contributions.
This paper is part of a study on tourism development in the Bogor Regency, West Java Province. This area has various tourist attractions, ranging from natural lakes, agro-tourism, artificial beaches, ornamental fish markets, and others. One of the tourist objects that has been held since 1992 is a hot spring bath utilizing a natural source of sulfur in the village of Bojong Sempu, Ciseeng District, but it has yet to show the expected results. The location of this tourist object included in the national geographic agenda is still not visited by many tourists, except on Muslim religious holidays. On other days it still seemed deserted of visitors, so they seemed unable to achieve the expected results, especially as a source of income and welfare for the local community.
The research sample consists of 140 members of the community who live near the tourism object. The participants were chosen using a random sampling method and included people of various ages, including teenagers, youths, and parents.
We collect data using a questionnaire designed around important variables and their corresponding indicators. There are several indicators for each variable, which are then refined into specific research questions. The questionnaire is reviewed and discussed with experts in the field before it is used. To ensure validity and reliability, trial runs are also conducted with a group of teachers. The study includes only questions that meet the Pearson and Alpha Cronbach criteria, as defined by Sugiyono (2018). Questions stated to be valid and reliable were used in this study, while those that were invalid and reliable were discarded (not used).
Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used in the analysis, which is supported by Lisrel 8.70. SEM is a statistical method for investigating complex relationships between multiple variables at the same time, making it appropriate for this study's investigation of the interconnections among various factors influencing tourism development and community welfare.
Stages of Analysis
The analysis is performed through the following stages:
- Validity and Reliability Test of Indicators: The validity and reliability of the indicators used in the questionnaire are assessed. This process helps to ensure that the questions accurately measure the intended variables and provide consistent results.
- Analysis Requirements Test: Several analysis requirements are evaluated, including normality, multicollinearity, and linearity. Normality examines whether data distribution is approximately normal, multicollinearity assesses the presence of high correlations between predictors, and linearity verifies that relationships between variables are linear.
- Model Suitability Test (GOF Model): The goodness-of-fit (GOF) test is applied to evaluate how well the proposed model fits the observed data. This test assesses how well the collected data align with the theoretical model.
- Structural Relationship Analysis: This step involves investigating the relationships between variables and determining the contribution of each indicator to its respective variable. It allows the researchers to identify which factors significantly impact the tourism object's performance and contribute to the local community's welfare.
Characteristics of Respondents
The distribution of the questionnaire resulted in 155 people who provided answers to the questions asked. Still, after checking (cleaning the data), only 140 people (later called respondents) were eligible for further processing. The number of respondents consisted of 103 (73.57%) men and 37 (26.43%) women, consisting of 26 (18.57%) people under 20 years old, 18 (12.86%) people aged 21-25 years, 35 (25.00%) people aged 26-30 years, 12 (8.57%) people aged 31-35 years, 25 (17.86%) people aged 36-40 years, and 24 (17.14) %) people aged over 41 years. In terms of education, 16 (11.43%) did not graduate, 30 (21.43%) graduated from elementary school (graduated/did not graduate), 12 (8.57%) did not graduate, and 33 (23.57%) completed junior high school, 14 (10.00%) did not graduate, 29 (20.71%) graduated from high school, and six (4.29%) graduated from university.
Most of the respondents stated that they had jobs in the non-formal sector as traders, parking attendants, market workers, construction workers, drivers, motorcycle taxi drivers, and others. Only two answered that they worked as security guards, four as factory workers, 10 as teenagers completing their junior high/high school education, and two as elementary school teachers. Respondents who work as security guards, factory workers, and teachers have a fixed income of around Rp. 5,000,000 every month, while the income of other respondents is not fixed, ranging from Rp. 500,000 - Rp. 3,000,000 per month.
Respondent's Answers to the Questionnaire
Shown below are respondents' answers regarding hot spring attractions near their residences (Graph 1).
In general, as many as 49.58% of the respondents in Graph 1 tended to show strongly disagree/disagree that the study tourism object had developed well, 29.94% expressed doubt, and only 17.72% agreed strongly agreed. Many respondents tend to strongly disagree/disagree and do not know about the goals and objectives to be achieved in organizing tourist attractions; on the other hand, only a small proportion agree/strongly agree. In fact, most of the respondents said that they strongly disagree/disagree with questions regarding adequate facilities and marketing support, and only a small number answered agree/strongly agree. Most of the respondents also answered that tourist attractions were less able to provide jobs, especially for the absorption of residents from the surrounding community.
Graph 1 also shows that the majority (53.58%) tend to answer strongly disagree/disagree that the local government has played a role in supporting the implementation of tourism objects, as many as 28.58% answered doubtfully or do not know. Only a small proportion of 17.85% tend to answer agree /strongly agree. Also, only a small proportion of respondents tend to say that the local government has supported the development of tourism objects, assisted in the organization and management of tourism objects, supported the facilities needed by tourism objects, encouraged the participation of the private sector, and tried to involve the community by providing financial assistance for capital and business facilities.
In terms of infrastructure, more than half of the respondents (52.71%) tended to say that tourist objects lack adequate infrastructure so that it is easier and smoother to reach tourist objects, and only a small proportion (22.72%) answered agree/strongly agree. The road to the object is considered relatively narrow and tends to cause traffic jams. There is also no adequate accommodation around tourist objects, even though many other nearby objects can be visited (discussed in the discussion below). It is also considered that tourist objects are not equipped with shopping centres (for example: to buy souvenirs), information centres, and adequate security guards.
The private industry also has not shown an adequate role, especially in providing accommodation for tourists. Similar indications appear in support of inadequate transportation facilities to reach tourist attractions, involvement in opening small and medium enterprises, and others. From these respondents' answers, it was reflected that only a small proportion (27.35%) of respondents supported the role of the private sector, 28.94% said they doubted or did not know, and 43.61% stated that they strongly disagreed/disagreed. In fact, more than half of the respondents answered that around tourist objects, there were no education and training activities organized by the private sector to develop workforce skills to work in the tourism sector. However, 65.00% of respondents said there was potential for high school graduates who could be absorbed in the tourism sector. As many as 24.57% of respondents thought that the role of the private sector was still low in fostering cooperation with tourism object managers and the surrounding community.
Community involvement in tourism objects is still considered unsatisfactory. From the questions in the questionnaire, only 19.46% answered agree/strongly agree that tourism has involved local communities, while 66.79% answered strongly disagree/agree, and 10.00% answered in doubt. Most respondents tend to say that the community is less involved in artistic activities that can complement tourism objects, less involved in providing the facilities needed by tourists, less involved in providing information centres for tourists, and less involved in creating a sense of security and comfort.
In the analysis using the SEM technique, there are assumptions that must be fulfilled, including the normality test and multicollinearity test. The normality test is an assumption to determine the shape of the data distribution in producing a normal distribution, said to be normally distributed if the P-value > 0.05 or not normally distributed if the P-value < 0.05. The multicollinearity test is to determine whether the regression model finds a correlation between the independent variables or the independent variables by looking at the tolerance and variance inflation factor (VIF) values with a cut-off tolerance value of 0.10 or VIF values above 10 (Haryono & Wardoyo, 2018).
In processing the research data, it is known that the indicators used are normally distributed with a P-value > 0.05; the lowest is 0.0503, and the highest is 0.1540 (not included in this paper). However, the relationship in this study did not experience multicollinearity because it has a tolerance value that indicates a value of > 0.10 and a VIF value of <10 (table 1).
|Independent Variables||Collinearity Statistics|
|Village Tourism Potential (VTP)||0.3368 2.969|
|The Role of Local Government (RLG)||0.2248 4.449|
|Infrastructure Availability (IFA)||0.3245 3.082|
|Private Industry Involvement (PII)||0.2817 3.550|
|Community Participation (COP)||0.2531 3.951|
Another important aspect is knowing whether the built model is fit or not. The model suitability assessment was carried out based on several criteria, namely the whole or most of the assessment and the significance of the estimated parameters for each item. Model assessment can be obtained based on the fit index generated by LISREL. The model accuracy index that is commonly used is the Chi-Square value to assess whether the model is fit or not and see the parameters RMR, RMSEA, GFI, AGFI, CFI, and so on (Haryono & Wardoyo, 2018; see also: Yohana et al., 2021; Sariwulan et al., 2021; Clara et al., 2022). The results of data processing are shown in table 2, with the conclusion that the research model built was declared good or fit.
|RMR (Root Mean Square Residual)||≤ 0,05 atau ≤ 0,1||0.004||Good Fit|
|RMSEA (Root Mean square Error of Approximation)||≤ 0,08||0.002||Good Fit|
|GFI (Goodness of Fit)||≥ 0,90||0.96||Good Fit|
|AGFI (Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index)||≥ 0,90||0.95||Good Fit|
|CFI (Comparative Fit Index)||≥ 0,90||0.97||Good Fit|
|Normed Fit Index (NFI)||≥ 0,90||0.96||Good Fit|
|Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI)||≥ 0,90||0.97||Good Fit|
|Incremental Fit Index (IFI)||≥ 0,90||0.98||Good Fit|
|Relative Fit Index (RFI)||≥ 0,90||0.98||Good Fit|
After the analysis requirements test is met and the model built is declared good or fit, then the structural relationship between variables is tested, as well as the contribution of indicators to each variable. This is to determine the coefficient of the magnitude of the influence of exogenous variables on endogenous variables, as well as the contribution of the strongest and weakest values of the indicators contained in each variable. Processing research data found the value of the influence relationship between variables and the magnitude of the value of the contribution of each indicator as follows (Figure 2).
In Figure 3, it appears that the exogenous variables Village Tourism Potential (VTP), Regional Government Role (RLG), Availability of Infrastructure (IFA), Private Industry Involvement (PII), and Community Participation (COP) have a significant positive effect on the endogenous variable Tourism Village Development (SVTB). The endogenous PII variable owned the highest coefficient of influence at 0.88, followed by IFA at 0.85, VTP at 0.76, COP at 0.71, and RLG at 0.68. These results indicate that the successful implementation of Tourism Villages requires the private industry's involvement, adequate infrastructure support, well-directed development of potential objects, and the involvement of the surrounding community. The government's role is in the lowest position because it considers the role of providing infrastructure in reaching tourist objects as its obligation.
The study found that the involvement of private industry (PII) occupies the top position in influencing the implementation of tourism objects. It can be seen in figure 2 that the indicator of involvement of small and medium enterprises (x18) makes the highest contribution to the involvement of this private industry with a value of 0.99, followed by the indicator of the availability of infrastructure and accommodation (x17) of 0.96, and so on indicators of developing cooperative relations with the government central and regional (x21) of 0.93, organizing tourism education and training (x19), and providing employment (x20) of 0.80.
These results indicate that the involvement of private industry is very important for the development of Tourism Villages, not only as managers of tourist objects but also in other aspects. Tourism Villages need to be supported by small and medium business activities in the form of souvenir home industries (handicrafts, t-shirts, carvings, etc.), children's play facilities, organizing artistic attractions, and so on. The involvement of the private sector also includes the provision of adequate infrastructure and accommodation, such as opening roads, building shops, opening cafes and restaurants, providing hotel rooms for overnight stays, and others. Various cooperative relations also need to be developed between private industries and the government, such as the promotion of tourism objects, provision of easy-convenient-clean-smooth transportation, and so on. The private sector is also important in organizing education and training as well as absorbing the local workforce.
Various studies have shown that the development of a tourist attraction needs to involve the private sector (Cahyo & Nuryanti, 2019; Arbolino et al., 2021; Bayu et al., 2021). In the context of the object of study, the role of the private sector still tends to be low and less involved in its development. The role of the private sector in the promotion of tourist attractions is still minimal; there are no hotels for tourists to stay in, building shops where souvenirs are bought and sold, building places for performing arts attractions, and so on. Participation in the construction of this hotel is quite important to note because, around this village area, there are also many other tourist objects. Apart from that, the involvement of the private sector in opening cafes and restaurants is still inadequate; there are only small stalls selling food, drinks, fruit, and other things that are carried out by the local community.
The influence variable that occupies the second position is infrastructure (IFA). In this variable, the indicator for the availability of guardhouses and security officers (x16) makes the highest contribution with a value of 0.90, followed by the presence of a shopping centre (x14) of 0.88, the availability of easy and smooth transportation facilities (x12) and the existence of an information centre (x15) with each contribution of 0.87, and the lowest contribution is the accommodation indicator (x13) of 0.86. In particular, accommodation gets the lowest place, perhaps because it is considered to place more emphasis on private involvement.
Interestingly, respondents considered that the security aspect seemed to receive less attention from management and the local police. Tourist objects are considered not to provide a sense of security and comfort for tourists. The case that often occurs is a request for money by a group of people by force without any clear reason. Even though this aspect of security is considered to be one of the supporters of the successful development of tourist attractions (Khalik, 2014; Suharto, 2016; Fanani & Pangestuti, 2017; Toker, A., & Emir, O. 2023). Tourist attractions are also not accompanied by shopping centers for tourists, for example, to buy souvenirs (Kurniawan, Tisnawati, & Yuliza, 2012; Muro-Rodríguez, Pérez-Jiménez, & Sánchez-Araque, 2020). In addition, the connecting roads to tourist attractions and public transportation are not adequate. The road to the tourist attraction has been paved but is still relatively narrow, and many large vehicles pass it (trucks carrying sand, soil, stones, etc.). There is no special transportation to get to tourist attractions except in the form of four-wheeled or two-wheeled public transportation.
The next variable is Tourism Object Potential (VTP), with attention to 5 (five) indicators, namely: objectives (x1), targets (x2), infrastructure (x3), marketing (x4), and employment. This study found that setting targets to attract tourists (x2) contributed the highest with a value of 0.98. This can be interpreted that it is appropriate for tourist objects to set targets to try to attract as many tourists as possible if you want to develop and be sustainable. However, it needs to be equipped with adequate infrastructure, such as roads to tourist attractions, rest areas, trash cans, parking lots, bathrooms, changing rooms, toilets, security posts, culinary stalls, and others. Tourism objects are also expected to be able to absorb local workers and have clear goals and marketing.
Precisely the management of tourism objects still does not meet the above requirements. Various weaknesses ranging from roads to tourist attractions that are not smooth and paved, parking areas that are not paved and muddy, canteens that are not clean and hygienic, inadequate trash bins, inadequate parks and resting areas, to illegal levies, by people outside and inside the attraction. The results of interviews with several local residents found that they tend to think that tourist objects have not been managed properly by providing a sense of security, beauty, comfort, cleanliness, fun, comfort, satisfaction, and so on to tourists. Even though all of these aspects greatly influence tourism development (Buana & Sunarta, 2015; Suharto, 2016; Fanani & Pangestuti, 2017; Ćurčić et al., 2021; Sugiama, Oktavia & Karlina, 2022).
Another variable that influences Sustainable Village Tourism Development (SVTB) is community participation (COP). The indicators used in this variable are performing arts (x22), public facilities (x23), public services (x24), and comfort-security (x25). This study found that the public service indicator gave the highest contribution to the COP variable with a value of 0.89, followed by the convenience-safety indicator of 0.82, the performing arts indicator of 0.80, and the lowest public facilities indicator of 0.77.
These results indicate that public service is an indicator that is considered very important by respondents, especially in providing convenience, smoothness, and tourist satisfaction (Susilo, 2012; Strada, 2020; Arbolino et al., 2021; Wang et al., 2021). Tourist objects here are considered to pay less attention to this aspect by respondents and can be one of the causes of not being able to attract tourist visits, even being an obstacle to returning. On the other hand, tourist attractions are not equipped with adequate security officers, both within and within tourist areas (Khalik, 2014; Suharto, 2016; Fanani & Pangestuti, 2017; Toker, A., & Emir, O. 2023). This aspect causes tourists to feel insecure and uncomfortable enjoying tourist attractions, one of which is the large number of extortions committed by youth groups, and it is not uncommon to be forced to give a sum of money.
Tourism objects are also considered to lack other artistic attractions that can be enjoyed by tourists, such as music, dance, paintings and souvenirs, which show the characteristics of tourist objects, so they are considered lonely and less attractive. Even though these art attractions can attract tourists to visit tourist attractions (Yulianto, 2015; Monariyanti, 2015; Soewarlan, 2018; Nurlena, Taufiq, & Musadad, 2021). Tourists who visit are dominated by those who aim to soak in hot sulfur water, which is thought to cure certain diseases. The indicators considered by the respondents to have received less attention were inadequate public facilities, whether in the form of public transportation to tourist attractions, parking lots, places of worship, health centers, information and telecommunication centers, security posts, and others.
This study found that the role of local government (RLG) is felt to be the lowest in influencing the Development and Sustainability of Tourism Villages (SVTB). However, this RLG variable also has a significant positive effect on the SVTB variable. There are 5 (five) indicators used in the RLG variable, namely: role in the development of tourist villages (x6), involvement in organizing and managing tourist objects (x7), allocation of funds to support the development of tourist objects (x8), procurement of infrastructure (x9), private industry involvement (x10), and community participation around the tourist attraction (x11).
The study found that the community participation indicator (x11) made the highest contribution to the RLG variable with a value of 0.94, followed by the contribution of the infrastructure procurement indicator (x9) of 0.89, the tourism object development indicator (x6) of 0.88, the fund allocation indicator (x8) and private industry involvement (x10) of 0.87, and the lowest indicator is organization and management (x7) of 0.60. The highest results show that respondents perceive the importance of the role of the local government in involving the participation of the local community in the success of organizing tourist attractions, both creating artistic attractions (music, dance, etc.), providing employment, and encouraging household businesses. Making nirs, recommending the arrangement of beauty and cleanliness of the environment, and others. Various studies have shown that community participation has an important contribution to supporting the development of a tourist attraction (Dragouni et al., 2018; Wondirad & Ewnetu, 2019; Singgalen, Sasongko, & Wiloso, 2019; Amin et al., 2022).
Community participation is still low and limited. Participation is still in the form of small-scale trading, such as: opening small stalls, selling fruit on the side of the road, providing toilets, trading children's toys, selling cigarettes, snacks, and others. Participation in the management of tourism objects is also limited to lowly workers, for example: as security officers, cleaners, parking attendants, and so on. It is suspected that the main cause is low education, especially in the field of tourism, low entrepreneurial mentality, inadequate facilities for organizing art activities, lack of jobs in tourism, and others.
Tourist objects are still not utilizing local culture to attract tourists. Even though there are many cultural potentials in the surrounding community that can be utilized to attract and entertain tourists. As a result, tourist attractions feel dry, less enriched with cultural activities, and less supported by traditional handicraft souvenirs. The main cause is the lack of attention from tourism object managers, the government, the involvement of private industry, and the involvement of local cultural figures and artists in developing local culture. On the other hand, regions do not have adequate facilities for local cultural activities within and outside the tourism object, for example, providing venues for performances, equipment for artistic activities, and others.
The next role is the provision of infrastructure in the form of adequate road construction, transportation to location objects, shopping centers, information and communication centers, and other public services. This role is very important, considering that the current infrastructure is considered inadequate. The road to tourist attractions is relatively narrow, often in very bad condition, passing through traditional markets, which cause traffic jams, passing large trucks carrying sandstone building materials, inadequate shopping centers for souvenirs, inadequate public services, and so. Another role that is expected is to allocate funds in the government budget, for example, helping with promotional funds, organizing training and counseling for tourism workers, and trying to involve private industry participation as the key to the success, development and sustainability of tourist attractions (Arbolino et al., 2021; Wang et al., 2021). Cooperation with the private sector is still relatively low, for example, encouraging the tour & travel business, marketing, providing tourist accommodation, providing special public transportation to tourist sites, and so on.
Another role of local government is to support the development of tourist objects, both in providing training and counseling to parties involved in structuring tourist objects, providing parking lots, and providing security officers. However, respondents tend to think that although the role of local government needs to be increased, do not interfere in the arrangement and management of tourism objects. Respondents perceive that they are in the lowest position and tend to limit the government's role only as a motivator and facilitator.
Exogenous variables Village Tourism Potential (VTP), Role of Local Government (RLG), Availability of Infrastructure (IFA), Private Industry Involvement (PII), and Community Participation (COP) have proven to have a significant positive effect on the endogenous variable Sustainable Tourism Village Development (SVTB). There are 5 (five) indicators used in SVTB, namely: regional income (x26), community income (x27), employment (x28), economic activity (x29), and population growth (x30). Data processing resulted in the influence of indicators on the SVTB variable that was strongest owned by economic activity (x29) with a valuable contribution of 0.98, followed by community income indicators (x27) of 0.91, regional income indicators (x26) of 0.89, employment indicator (x28), and the lowest is the population growth indicator (x30).
These results indicate that the development and sustainability of Tourism Villages will make a positive contribution to increasing economic activity, especially in the surrounding community (Ismayilov, Samadova, & Mirzayev, 2020; Wijijayanti et al., 2020). In line with that, tourism development can contribute to increasing people's income (Leonandri & Rosmadi, 2018; Ćurčić et al., 2021), increasing regional income (Egbali, Nosrat, & Ali pour, 2011 Dimitrovskia, Todorovic, & Valjarevic, 2012), creating fields absorption of local and migrant workers (Dwiningwarni, Mardiana, & Wahyuningdyah, 2021). It is also considered that the development and sustainability of the Tourism Village will increase the population, especially migrants from other regions.
So far, the object of study is still ongoing, but the progress is still far from expectations. As a result, it is not only lacking in visitors, but it is also certain that the contribution to regional income is low, economic activity is still limited, has not become an entry point for people's welfare, and the ability to absorb local workers is low. Since a few years ago, the number of residents has increased significantly, but more due to other factors: not the attractiveness of tourist objects. In fact, if tourism objects develop optimally and sustainably, they tend to have a positive impact, especially on regional income and people's welfare. Contribution to regional income is at least manifested in increasing regional income (x31), overcoming unemployment (x32), overcoming poverty (x33), and developing the surrounding environment (x34). Community welfare contributions include at least: increasing the skills of the population (x35), increasing economic activity (x36), increasing social facilities (x37), and increasing people's income (x38).
The Tourism Village Study here has not been able to show adequate and sustainable development and tends to stagnate. Various aspects have not been fulfilled maximally to support the management of tourist objects. The problems faced include related to optimizing tourist destinations and targets, the role of local government, infrastructure and accommodation, involvement of private industry, and community participation. As a result, tourism objects have not shown their ability to contribute to increasing economic activity, increasing regional income, increasing people's income, creating and absorbing labor, overcoming poverty, and managing a beautiful, safe, clean, and comfortable environment. Efforts are still needed to improve the management of tourism objects by the stakeholders involved.
It is recommended that tourism development in this area be managed in an integrated and connected manner. In this area, there are potential tourist objects that vary and are close together, including Lake Lebak Wangi, Parung Ornamental Fish Market, Betta Ornamental Fish Cultivation, Riyadhoh Village, Pelangi Waterpark Village, Wana Griya Artificial Beach, Mount Peyek, Hot Springs, Cisadane Valley, Outbound Pelita Desa, Inagro Agrotourism, Oil Palm Plantations, and others. The development of these tourist objects must be supported by adequate infrastructure, availability of accommodation, shopping centers, involvement of the tourism industry, and community participation. In particular, infrastructure in the form of transportation facilities to tourist sites requires adequate road width, good condition, and asphalt, free of traffic jams, easy and smooth transportation facilities, and so on.
Tourism object managers, the government, and the private sector need to explore and utilize local culture to support the implementation of these tourist objects. Especially local governments need to foster and develop the local culture to support the organization of tourism objects, provide assistance by allocating budgets, providing facilities, providing education and training, and encouraging the development of places for arts development, cultural and artist development, and involving community participation starting from youth, organizations youth, and so on.
Acknowledgment Statement: This study is an independent initiative of the author. Thank you to all parties who supported and helped this study.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have influenced the work reported in this study.
Author contribution statements: First and Second authors; Concept, writing, methodology; third author formal analysis, original draft preparation; the fourth and fifth author is writing—review and editing; all authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
Funding: There are no funds for this study.
Ethical Consideration statement: Not Applicable
Data Availability Statement: Available on demand.
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