Filipino Americans and the Glass Ceiling: A Quantitative Analysis of Cultural Adherence, Assertiveness, and Management

Abby Hamilton (1) , Daniel G. J. Kuchinka (2)
(1) Industrial and Organizational Psychology Graduate, Keiser University, 5601 Brookdale Way, Tampa, FL, USA , United States
(2) Industrial and Organizational Psychology Faculty, Keiser University, 34986 141st Avenue, Montgomery, MN, USA , United States

Abstract

With a sample of 473 Filipino Americans in 35 states in the United States, this quantitative study was designed to investigate factors which surround Filipino Americans’ glass ceiling challenges in attaining higher-level positions in the workplace. The investigation explored the related variables, including years of management experience, adherence to two dimensions of Filipino cultural values (interpersonal norms and conservatism), and assertiveness.  Years of living in the United States, geographic location, and generational levels were also examined. The study revealed a statistically significant negative relationship between assertiveness and the interpersonal norms dimension of the Filipino culture. Findings revealed specific Filipino cultural traits which conflict with assertiveness. Results from the current study can be used for the development of assertiveness training for Filipino Americans who desire to advance in the workplace.

Full text article

Generated from XML file

References

Agbayani-Siewert P. (2004). Assumptions of Asian American similarity: the case of Filipino and Chinese American students. Social Work, 49(1), 39–51. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/49.1.39 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/49.1.39

Agbayani-Siewert, P. (1994). Filipino American culture and family: Guidelines for practitioners. Families in Society, 75(7), 429. https://doi.org/10.1177/104438949407500704 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/104438949407500704

Akutagawa, L. (2013). Breaking stereotypes: An Asian American’s view of leadership development. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 4(4), 277-284. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035390 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035390

Alberti, R. E. & M.L. Emmons (1995). Your perfect right: assertiveness and equality in your life and relationships. Impact Publishers, an imprint of New Harbinger Publications, Inc.

Atwater, L., M. Wang, J.W. Smither & J.W. Fleenor (2009). Are cultural characteristics associated with the relationship between self and others’ ratings of leadership? Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4): 876–886. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014561 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014561

Barry, D. T. (2001). Development of a new scale for measuring acculturation: The East Asian acculturation measure (EAAM). Journal of Immigrant Health, 3(4), 193-197. doi: 10.1023/A:1012227611547 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/t03891-000

Bjorck, J. P., W. Cuthbertson, J. W. Thurman & Y. S. Lee (2001). Ethnicity, coping, and distress among Korean Americans, Filipino Americans, and caucasian Americans. The Journal of Social Psychology, 141(4), 421-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224540109600563 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00224540109600563

Boiger, M., B. Mesquita, A. Tsai & H. Markus (2012). Influencing and adjusting in daily emotional situations: A comparison of European and Asian American action styles. Cognition & Emotion, 26(2), 332–340. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2011.572422 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2011.572422

Caballo, V. E., I.C. Salazar, P. Olivares, M.J. Irurtia, J. Olivares & R. Toledo (2014). Assessing social skills: The factorial structure and other psychometric properties of four self-report measures. Psicología Conductual, 22(3), 375-399. https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/assessing-social-skills-factorial-structure-other/docview/1644150077/se-2

Carpita, M., & Manisera, M. (2011). On the imputation of missing data in surveys with Likert-type scales. Journal of Classification, 28(1), 93-112. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00357-011-9074-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00357-011-9074-z

Cesare, N., H. Lee, T. McCormick, E. Spiro & E. Zagheni (2018). Promises and pitfalls of using digital traces for demographic research. Demography, 55(5): 1979-1999. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0715-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0715-2

Chakraborty, M. (2009). Importance of assertiveness at the workplace: A case study. IUP Journal of Soft Skills, 3(3/4), 12–18. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bsh&AN=47506249&site=ehost-live.

Chin, M. M. (2016). Asian Americans, bamboo ceilings, and affirmative action: Understanding people in their social worlds understanding people in their social worlds. Contexts, 15(1), 70-73. doi:10.1177/1536504216628845 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1536504216628845

Chung, R.H.G., B.S.K. Kim & J.M. Abreu (2004). Asian American multidimensional acculturation scale: Development, factor analysis, reliability and validity. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(1), 66-80. https://doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.10.1.66 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.10.1.66

Coco, C. M. (2011). Emotional intelligence and job satisfaction: The EQ relationship for deans of U.S. business schools. Journal of Academic Administration in Higher Education, 7(1), 1–7. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (305135846).?

Cook, A., & C. Glass (2014). Women and top leadership positions: Towards an institutional analysis. Gender, Work & Organization, 21(1), 91–103. https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12018

David, E. J. R. (2008). A colonial mentality model of depression for Filipino Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 14(2),118–127. https://doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.14.2.118 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.14.2.118

David, E. J. (2010). Cultural mistrust and mental health help-seeking attitudes among Filipino Americans. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1(1): 57-66. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018814 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018814

David, E. J. R., D.K.B. Sharma & J. Petalio (2017). Losing Kapwa: Colonial legacies and the Filipino American family. Asian American Journal of Psychology 8(1), 43–55. https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000068 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000068

del Prado, A. M. & A.T. Church (2010). Development and validation of the enculturation scale for Filipino Americans. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(4), 469-483. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020940 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020940

Ea, E. E., M.Q. Griffin, N. L'Eplattenier & J.J. Fitzpatrick (2007). Job satisfaction and acculturation among Filipino registered nurses. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40(1), 46-51. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2007.00205.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2007.00205.x

Ebrahimi, B. P. (1999). Managerial motivation and gender roles: A study of females and males in Hong Kong. Women in Management Review, 14(2), 44-53. https://doi.org/10.1108/09649429910261387 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09649429910261387

Eekhout, I., , H. C.W de Vet., J.W.R. Twisk, J.P.L. Brand, M.R. de Boer & M.W. Heymans (2014). Missing data in a multi-item instrument were best handled by multiple imputation at the item score level. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 67(3), 335-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.09.009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.09.009

Ellis, P. (2018). Learning to be an assertive leader. Wounds UK, 14(4), 76–77. Retrieved from https://www.wounds-uk.com/journals/issue/548/article-details/learning-assertive-leader

Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York: Guilford Press.

Frey, W. H. (2018). Diversity explosion: How new racial demographics are remaking America. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Gabrielsson, M., J. Darling & H. Seristö (2009). Transformational team-building across cultural boundaries: A case focusing on the key paradigm of leadership styles. Team Performance Management, 15(5), 235-256. https://doi.org/10.1108/13527590910983512 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13527590910983512

Gayet-Ageron, A., T. Agoritsas, L. Schiesari, V. Kolly & T.V. Perneger (2011). Barriers to participation in a patient satisfaction survey: Who are we missing? PLoS One, 6(10), e26852. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026852 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026852

Gosling, S. D., S. Vazire, S. Srivastava & O.P. John (2004). Should we trust web-based studies? A comparative analysis of six preconceptions about internet questionnaires. American Psychologist, 59(2), 93-104. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.59.2.93 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.2.93

Hahm, S.W. (2017). Communication strategies of online-based leadership and members’ work engagement and job burnout. Journal of Korean Society for Internet Information, 18(5), 103–112. Retrieved from https://www.kci.go.kr/kciportal/ci/sereArticleSearch/ciSereArtiView.kci?sereArticleSearchBean.artiId=ART002280724

Hufana, A., & M. L. Morgan Consoli (2020). “I push through and stick with it”: Exploring resilience among Filipino American adults. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 11(1), 3–13. https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000171 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000171

Hui, K., & R. W. Lent (2018). The roles of family, culture, and social cognitive variables in the career interests and goals of Asian American college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 65(1), 98–109. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000235 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000235

Hyun, J. (2005). Breaking the bamboo ceiling: Career strategies for Asians. New York, NY: Harper Collins.

Janssen, R., P. Spronck, P. Dibbets & A. Arntz (2015). Frequency ratio: A method for dealing with missing values within nearest neighbour search. Journal of Systems Integration, 6(3), 3-14. https://doi.org/10.20470/jsi.v6i3.233 DOI: https://doi.org/10.20470/jsi.v6i3.233

Jenerette, C. & J. Dixon (2010). Developing a short form of the Simple Rathus Assertiveness schedule using a sample of adults with sickle cell disease. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21(4), 314–324. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659609360712 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659609360712

Jenkins, E. K. & M.F. Calegari (2010). Moving towards a culturally diverse accounting profession. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 14(3), 121-131. Retrieved from https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/moving-towards-culturally-diverse-accounting/docview/747986241/se-2

Kawahara, D. M., M.S. Pal & Chin, J.L. (2013). The leadership experiences of Asian Americans. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 4(4), 240-248. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035196 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035196

Keister, L. A. & Aronson, B. (2017). Immigrants in the one percent: The national origin of top wealth owners. PLoS One, 12(2). e0172876. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172876 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172876

Kim, B. S., D.R. Atkinson & P.H. Yang (1999). The Asian Values Scale (AVS): Development, factor analysis, validation, and reliability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46(3), 342-352. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.46.3.342 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.46.3.342

Lathabhavan, R. & A.B. Senthil (2017). Glass ceiling and women employees in Asian organizations: A tri-decadal review. Asia - Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 9(3), 232-246. https://doi.org/10.1108/apjba-03-2017-0023 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/APJBA-03-2017-0023

Le, B. P. (2016). Choosing to lead. Library Management, 37(1), 81-90. https://doi.org/10.1108/lm-05-2015-0029 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/LM-05-2015-0029

Lee, J. H. & A.T. Church (2017). Social anxiety in Asian Americans: Integrating personality and cultural factors. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 8(2), 103–114. https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000066 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000066

Lin, L. (2013). Filipina nurses’ transition into the US hospital system. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 16(4): 682-688. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-013-9793-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-013-9793-9

Lounsbury, J. W., E.D. Sundstrom, L.W. Gibson, J.M. Loveland & A.W. Drost (2016). Core personality traits of managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(2), 434-450. https://doi.org/10.1108/jmp-03-2014-0092 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-03-2014-0092

Nadal, K. L. (2011). Filipino American psychology: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118094747

Nadal, K. L., S.T. Pituc, M.P. Johnston & T. Esparrago (2010). Overcoming the model minority myth: Experiences of Filipino American graduate students. Journal of College Student Development, 51(6), 694-706. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2010.0023 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2010.0023

Niikura, R. (1999). Assertiveness among Japanese, Malaysian, Filipino, and U.S. white-collar workers. The Journal of Social Psychology, 139(6), 690–699. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224549909598249 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00224549909598249

Parham, J. B., C. C. Lewis, C. E. Fretwell, J.G. Irwin & M.R. Schrimsher (2015). Influences on assertiveness: Gender, national culture, and ethnicity. Journal of Management Development, 34(4), 421-439. https://doi.org/10.1108/jmd-09-2013-0113 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-09-2013-0113

Pomeda, J. R., & F. Casani (2013). Higher officials’ training needs on managerial competencies in Spanish universities: Preliminary findings. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 50(1), 43–61. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1059848.pdf

Rathus, S. A. (1973). Rathus Assertiveness Schedule. Psychtests Dataset. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/t04983-000

Redfield, R., R. Linton & M. J. Herskovits (1936). Memorandum for the Study of Acculturation. American Anthropologist, 38(1), 149–152. https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1936.38.1.02a00330 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1936.38.1.02a00330

Rockstuhl, T., J. H. Dulebohn, S. Ang & L. M. Shore (2012). Leader–member exchange (LMX) and culture: A meta-analysis of correlates of LMX across 23 countries. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(6), 1097-1130. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029978 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029978

Rodriguez-Operana, V. C., R.S. Mistry & Y. J. Chen (2017). Disentangling the myth: Social relationships and Filipino American adolescents’ experiences of the model minority stereotype. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 56–71. https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000071 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000071

Şerban, G. (2010). Managerial psychology and leadership sine qua non conditions in increasing the efficiency of the didactic process. Edu World Journal, 1(3),191–193. Retrieved from https://123dok.net/article/managerial-psychology-leadership-conditions-increasing-efficiency-didactic-process.zkwvlo3e

Shen, H., S. Chiu & R.F. Lim (2005). Cross-cultural issues in therapy with an Asian American adolescent. Adolescent Psychiatry, 29(1), 315-344. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203780589-19 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203780589-19

Tan, J. (2008). Breaking the "bamboo curtain" and the "glass ceiling": The experience of women entrepreneurs in high-tech industries in an emerging market. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(3), 547-564. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1552263 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-007-9454-9

Tuason, M. T. G., A.R. Taylor, L. Rollings, T. Harris & C. Martin (2007). On both sides of the hyphen: Exploring the Filipino-American identity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(4), 362–372. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.54.4.362 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.54.4.362

U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). Asian-American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month: May 2019. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/facts-for-features/2019/asian-american-pacific-islander.html (accessed 1 April 2021).

U.S. Census Bureau (2010). Total population universe: Total population 2010 census summary File 2. https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_SF2_PCT1&prodType=table (accessed 1 April 2021).

Vargas, P. & L. Jurado (2016). Dietary acculturation among Filipino Americans. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(1),1-11. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13010016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13010016

Wu, T. & J. Lee (2015). A pilot program to promote mental health among Asian-American immigrant children and their parents: A community-based participatory approach. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies, 6(4-1), 730-745. https://doi.org/10.18357/ijcyfs.641201515055 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18357/ijcyfs.641201515055

Yu, H. H. (2020). Revisiting the bamboo ceiling: Perceptions from Asian Americans on experiencing workplace discrimination. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 11(3), 158-167. https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000193 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000193

Zhou, M. & J. Lee (2017). Hyper-selectivity and the remaking of culture: Understanding the Asian American achievement paradox. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 7-15. https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000069 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000069

Authors

Abby Hamilton
abbyhamilton333@gmail.com (Primary Contact)
Daniel G. J. Kuchinka
Author Biographies

Abby Hamilton, Industrial and Organizational Psychology Graduate, Keiser University, 5601 Brookdale Way, Tampa, FL, USA

Dr. Abby Hamilton earned a PhD in Industrial and Organizational Psychology and is a second-generation Filipino American and public speaker on assertiveness and culture. She is the Director of Student Services at Everglades University, where she provides career counselling and leadership training. Dr. Hamilton is the principal scientist at a psychological assessment company that provides emotional intelligence tools for corporate use. Her research interests include assertiveness, leadership, emotional intelligence, culture, and communication.

Daniel G. J. Kuchinka, Industrial and Organizational Psychology Faculty, Keiser University, 34986 141st Avenue, Montgomery, MN, USA

Dr. Daniel G. J. Kuchinka earned a Ph.D. in Industrial and Organizational Psychology and is a Graduate Professor of Psychology at Keiser University and St. Peters University. His areas of expertise include servant leadership, organizational development, training, education, and spirituality in the workplace. Dr. Kuchinka designed and validated a new servant leadership measure, which is part of his book, Servant Leadership Manual: Education, Assessment, Training, and Organizational Development Activities.

Hamilton, A., & Kuchinka, D. G. J. (2022). Filipino Americans and the Glass Ceiling: A Quantitative Analysis of Cultural Adherence, Assertiveness, and Management. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 22(4), 66–76. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v22i4.45

Article Details

Smart Citations via scite_
Views
  • Abstract 171212
  • PDF 409
  • XML 0