Elaboration of Underpinning Methods and Data Analysis Process of Directed Qualitative Content Analysis for Communication Studies

Rasha Alyaqoub (1) , Ahmad Alsharairi (2) , Muhammad Zammad Aslam (3)
(1) Faculty of Mass Communication, University of Petra, Amman , Jordan
(2) Faculty of Media, Zarqa University, Zarqa , Jordan
(3) School of Multimedia Technology and Communication, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok , Malaysia


Directed qualitative content analysis (QCA) is a qualitative analysis method that has been recently explained and employed practically by a few researchers at the international level. They employed it deductively in most cases, primarily within qualitative research guidelines. In contrast to the inductive method, which starts with a general hypothesis and builds upon it as it gathers data, the deductive method, also known as the directed approach, researchers develop the categories and subcategories that guide their research based on an already established theory or theories. The present paper also explained this conceptual method in the context of the deductive approach. The purpose of deductive or directed QCA is to test, verify, or broaden the scope of the study’s underlying theory(s) by applying them to data collected from sources other than those directly relevant to its creation. Researchers employed deductive QCA in sixteen and seven steps in previous studies, respectively. Hence, this article proposes a four-step conceptual model deduced from the present researchers’ previous works and others’ previous studies to address the gaps above in the qualitative research tradition and achieve the same goals with the research data. We provide conceptual sample data in tables as examples for scholars interested in political communication who might use DQCA in their future studies.

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Rasha Alyaqoub
rasha.alyaqoub@uop.edu.jo (Primary Contact)
Ahmad Alsharairi
Muhammad Zammad Aslam
Author Biographies

Rasha Alyaqoub, Faculty of Mass Communication, University of Petra, Amman

Dr. Rasha Alyaqoub is an Assistant Professor and the Head of the Department of Journalism and Digital Media at the School of Mass Communication at the University of Petra. She earned her Bachelor of Arts (BA) and Master of Arts (MA) in Communications from Yarmouk University. Additionally, she obtained her PhD in Communication from Universiti Utara Malaysia. Dr Alyaqoub has been actively involved in teaching and research since 2020 at the University of Petra. Her research interests primarily revolve around the fields of public relations, online communication, and qualitative research methods

Ahmad Alsharairi, Faculty of Media, Zarqa University, Zarqa

Dr. Ahmad Alsharairi is an Assistant Professor at Faculty of Media, Zarqa University, Jordan. Ahmad holds a PhD in Communication, Malaysia, completed at the School of Multimedia Technology and Communication,  Universiti Utara Malaysia. His research interests include Online Communication and Media, Communication Behaviour, Public Relations, and Internal Communication.

Muhammad Zammad Aslam, School of Multimedia Technology and Communication, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok

Dr. Muhammad Zammad Aslam holds a Ph.D. from Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia. He also has a master’s degree in English (Linguistics and Literature) and a Master of Philosophy (English Linguistics) from the National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad. He is also a certified master trainer and an English language instructor. His research interests include Intercultural Communication, Political Communication, Spiritual and Transformational Leadership, Political Discourse Analysis, and Second Language Learning and Acquisition.

Alyaqoub, R., Alsharairi, A., & Aslam, M. Z. (2024). Elaboration of Underpinning Methods and Data Analysis Process of Directed Qualitative Content Analysis for Communication Studies. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 24(2), 108–116. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v24i2.573

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