Linking Gender To Creativity: Role of Risk Taking and Support For Creativity Towards Creative Potential of Employees

Dini Turipanam Alamanda (1), Adel Ahmed (2), Dedy Achmad Kurniady (3), Agus Rahayu (4), Israr Ahmad (5), Nik Alif Amri Nik Hashim (6)
(1) Faculty of Economics and Business Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia, Indonesia,
(2) Amity Business School Amity University Dubai Dubai,, United Arab Emirates,
(3) Faculty of Educational Sciences, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia,
(4) Faculty of Economics and Business Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia , Indonesia,
(5) School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia, Pakistan,
(6) Faculty of Hospitality, Tourism and Wellness, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan , Malaysia


The purpose of this study is to lay its prime focus on the support for creativity that defines the self-analysis of creative capabilities and potential among men and women. Benefitting from the cross-level interactionist perspective, social role theory, and role congruity theory, this research developed an integrated multilevel model to examine gender differences in risk-taking behavior and determine how the contextual factor of support for creativity shapes employees' risk-taking and influences their creativity performance. Data for this study were collected from 347 employees and their respective 98 supervisors of a pharmaceutical company in Jakarta, Indonesia. The proposed cross-level moderated mediation model was tested using data obtained at two points in time from two data sources (subordinates and supervisors) working at a pharmaceutical company. The obtained data were then analyzed with Mplus. Our findings indicate that women may have lower risk-taking than men in organizational contexts. However, support for creativity restores parity between men and women through cross-level moderated mediation, such that support for creativity has a stronger effect on women's risk-taking than that of men, resulting in increased creative performance for women. Research contributions and future research directions are also discussed in the relevant sections.

Full text article

Generated from XML file


Abraham, M. (2020). Gender-role incongruity and audience-based gender bias: An examination of networking among entrepreneurs. Administrative Science Quarterly, 65(1), 151-180.

Acton, B. P., Foti, R. J., Lord, R. G., & Gladfelter, J. A. (2019). Putting emergence back in leadership emergence: A dynamic, multilevel, process-oriented framework. The Leadership Quarterly, 30(1), 145-164.

Adeel, A., Ahmed, K., Khan, S. A., Hanif, H. M., & Daghriri, Y. Q. (2023). Citizens' Intentions to Adopt Innovative E-Government Services: A Technology-Adoption Perspective. International Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Innovation (IJEEI), 13(1), 1-20.

Adeel, A., Batool, S., Daisy, K. M. H., & Khan, M. K. (2022). Leader-member exchange and creative idea validation: The role of helping and bullying. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 27(2), 107–134-107–134.

Adeel, A., Batool, S., & Madni, Z.-u.-A. (2023). Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity: The Role of Digital Technology and Knowledge Integration Ability in Facilitating Creativity. International Journal of Management Studies (IJMS), 30(1), 1-36.

Adeel, A., Kee, D. M. H., Mubashir, A. S., Samad, S., & Daghriri, Y. Q. (2023). Leaders’ ambition and followers’ cheating behavior: The role of performance pressure and leader identification. Frontiers in psychology, 14, 982328.

Adeel, A., Pengcheng, Z., Saleem, F., Ali, R., & Batool, S. (2019). Conflicts and creative idea endorsement: Do subordinates’ political skills and implementation instrumentality matter? International Journal of Conflict Management. 30(5), 637-656.

Aguinis, H., Gottfredson, R. K., & Culpepper, S. A. (2013). Best-practice recommendations for estimating cross-level interaction effects using multilevel modeling. Journal of management, 39(6), 1490-1528.

Ahmad, I., Thurasamy, R., Adeel, A., & Alam, B. (2023). Promotive Voice, Leader-member Exchange, and Creativity Endorsement: The Role of Supervisor-Attributed Motives. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 23(3), 1-13.

Ahmed, K., Adeel, A., Ali, R., & Rehman, R. U. (2019). Organizational democracy and employee outcomes: The mediating role of organizational justice. Business strategy & development, 2(3), 204-219.

Alonso, A. D., O’Shea, M., Kok, S., & Bressan, A. (2021). Entrepreneurs’ impact on the wider community: a comparative study of commercial beekeepers through the lens of social role theory. Society and Business Review.

Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization. Journal of personality and social psychology, 45(2), 357.

Amabile, T. M. (1988). A model of creativity and innovation in organizations. Research in organizational behavior, 10(1), 123-167.

Amabile, T. M. (2020). Creativity, artificial intelligence, and a world of surprises. Academy of Management Discoveries, 6(3), 351-354.

Amabile, T. M., & Conti, R. (1999). Changes in the work environment for creativity during downsizing. Academy of Management Journal, 42(6), 630-640.

Anderson, N., Potočnik, K., & Zhou, J. (2014). Innovation and creativity in organizations: A state-of-the-science review, prospective commentary, and guiding framework. Journal of management, 40(5), 1297-1333.

Anglin, A. H., Courtney, C., & Allison, T. H. (2022). Venturing for others, subject to role expectations? a role Congruity theory approach to social venture crowd funding. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 46(2), 421-448.

Baccarella, C. V., Maier, L., Meinel, M., Wagner, T. F., & Voigt, K.-I. (2021). The effect of organizational support for creativity on innovation and market performance: the moderating role of market dynamism. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management. 33(4), 827-849.

Badura, K. L., Grijalva, E., Newman, D. A., Yan, T. T., & Jeon, G. (2018). Gender and leadership emergence: A meta‐analysis and explanatory model. Personnel Psychology, 71(3), 335-367.

Baer, J., & Kaufman, J. C. (2008). Gender differences in creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 42(2), 75-105.

Baer, M., & Oldham, G. R. (2006). The curvilinear relation between experienced creative time pressure and creativity: moderating effects of openness to experience and support for creativity. Journal of applied psychology, 91(4), 963.

Bennett, N., & Lemoine, J. (2014). What VUCA really means for you. Harvard business review, 92(1/2).

Bernerth, J. B., & Aguinis, H. (2016). A critical review and best‐practice recommendations for control variable usage. Personnel Psychology, 69(1), 229-283.

Bosselut, G., Guilbert, L., & Chareyre, L. (2020). Transformational leadership and creativity in sport: Examining the mediating role of support for innovation. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38(23), 2698-2707.

Byrnes, J. P., Miller, D. C., & Schafer, W. D. (1999). Gender differences in risk taking: A meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 125(3), 367.

Chavez-Eakle, R. A., Lara, M. d. C., & Cruz-Fuentes, C. (2006). Personality: A possible bridge between creativity and psychopathology? Creativity Research Journal, 18(1), 27-38.

Chua, R., & Jin, M. (2020). Across the great divides: Gender dynamics influence how intercultural conflict helps or hurts creative collaboration. Academy of Management Journal, 63(3), 903-934.

Cropley, A. (2006). Creativity: A social approach. Roeper Review, 28(3), 125-130.

Dewett, T. (2006). Exploring the role of risk in employee creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 40(1), 27-45.

Dewett, T. (2007). Linking intrinsic motivation, risk taking, and employee creativity in an R&D environment. R&d Management, 37(3), 197-208.

Diebig, M., & Bormann, K. C. (2020). The dynamic relationship between laissez-faire leadership and day-level stress: A role theory perspective. German Journal of Human Resource Management, 34(3), 324-344.

Diliello, T. C., Houghton, J. D., & Dawley, D. (2011). Narrowing the creativity gap: The moderating effects of perceived support for creativity. The Journal of psychology, 145(3), 151-172.

Dul, J., Ceylan, C., & Jaspers, F. (2011). Knowledge workers' creativity and the role of the physical work environment. Human resource management, 50(6), 715-734.

Eagly, A. H. (2013). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation: Psychology Press.

Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological review, 109(3), 573.

Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 350-383.

Eibl, B., Lang, F. R., & Niessen, C. (2020). Employee voice at work: The role of employees’ gender, self-efficacy beliefs, and leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 29(4), 570-585.

Elsass, P. M., & Graves, L. M. (1997). Demographic diversity in decision-making groups: The experiences of women and people of color. Academy of management review, 22(4), 946-973.

Esguerra, G. A., Jáuregui, K., & Espinosa, J. C. (2022). Ethical leadership and organizational support for creativity at work. Creativity Studies, 15(2), 526–541-526–541.

Ferrell, O., Kapelianis, D., Ferrell, L., & Rowland, L. (2018). Expectations and attitudes toward gender-based price discrimination. Journal of Business Ethics, 152(4), 1015-1032.

Fyall, R., & Gazley, B. (2015). Applying social role theory to gender and volunteering in professional associations. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 26(1), 288-314.

Games, D., & Rendi, R. P. (2019). The effects of knowledge management and risk taking on SME financial performance in creative industries in an emerging market: the mediating effect of innovation outcomes. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 9(1), 1-14.

George, J. M., & Zhou, J. (2001). When openness to experience and conscientiousness are related to creative behavior: an interactional approach. Journal of applied psychology, 86(3), 513.

Goncalo, J. A., & Staw, B. M. (2006). Individualism–collectivism and group creativity. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 100(1), 96-109.

Gong, Y., Huang, J.-C., & Farh, J.-L. (2009). Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity: The mediating role of employee creative self-efficacy. Academy of Management Journal, 52(4), 765-778.

Haase, J., Hoff, E. V., Hanel, P. H., & Innes-Ker, Å. (2018). A meta-analysis of the relation between creative self-efficacy and different creativity measurements. Creativity Research Journal, 30(1), 1-16.

Haines, E. L., Deaux, K., & Lofaro, N. (2016). The times they are a-changing… or are they not? A comparison of gender stereotypes, 1983–2014. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 40(3), 353-363.

Han, G. H., & Bai, Y. (2020). Leaders can facilitate creativity: The moderating roles of leader dialectical thinking and LMX on employee creative self-efficacy and creativity. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 35(5), 405-417.

Hartung, P. J., Fouad, N. A., Leong, F. T., & Hardin, E. E. (2010). Individualism-collectivism: Links to occupational plans and work values. Journal of Career Assessment, 18(1), 34-45.

Hassi, A. (2019). Empowering leadership and management innovation in the hospitality industry context: The mediating role of climate for creativity. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 31(4), 1785-1800.

Heilman, M. E. (2012). Gender stereotypes and workplace bias. Research in organizational behavior, 32, 113-135.

Heilman, M. E., & Caleo, S. (2018). Combatting gender discrimination: A lack of fit framework. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 21(5), 725-744.

Helson, R. (1999). A longitudinal study of creative personality in women. Creativity Research Journal, 12(2), 89-101.

Hill, K. L. (2013). We've Come A Long Way, Baby, Or Have We? Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 17(2), 29.

Hmieleski, K. M., & Sheppard, L. D. (2019). The Yin and Yang of entrepreneurship: Gender differences in the importance of communal and agentic characteristics for entrepreneurs' subjective well-being and performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 34(4), 709-730.

Hora, S., Lemoine, G. J., Xu, N., & Shalley, C. E. (2021). Unlocking and closing the gender gap in creative performance: A multilevel model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 42(3), 297-312.

Hoyt, C. L., & Burnette, J. L. (2013). Gender bias in leader evaluations: Merging implicit theories and role congruity perspectives. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(10), 1306-1319.

Hunt, C. J., & Gonsalkorale, K. (2014). Who cares what she thinks, what does he say? Links between masculinity, in-group bonding and gender harassment. Sex Roles, 70(1), 14-27.

Ilha Villanova, A. L., & Pina e Cunha, M. (2021). Everyday creativity: A systematic literature review. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 55(3), 673-695.

Janssen, O., Van de Vliert, E., & West, M. (2004). The bright and dark sides of individual and group innovation: A special issue introduction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(2), 129-145.

Johnson, S. K., Murphy, S. E., Zewdie, S., & Reichard, R. J. (2008). The strong, sensitive type: Effects of gender stereotypes and leadership prototypes on the evaluation of male and female leaders. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 106(1), 39-60.

Judge, T. A., Livingston, B. A., & Hurst, C. (2012). Do nice guys—and gals—really finish last? The joint effects of sex and agreeableness on income. Journal of personality and social psychology, 102(2), 390.

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692-724.

Karatepe, O. M., Aboramadan, M., & Dahleez, K. A. (2020). Does climate for creativity mediate the impact of servant leadership on management innovation and innovative behavior in the hotel industry? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 32(8), 2497-2517.

Karwowski, M., Lebuda, I., Wisniewska, E., & Gralewski, J. (2013). Big five personality traits as the predictors of creative self‐efficacy and creative personal identity: Does gender matter? The Journal of Creative Behavior, 47(3), 215-232.

Kemmelmeier, M., & Walton, A. P. (2016). Creativity in men and women: Threat, other-interest, and self-assessment. Creativity Research Journal, 28(1), 78-88.

Kim, T.-Y., Hon, A. H., & Lee, D.-R. (2010). Proactive personality and employee creativity: The effects of job creativity requirement and supervisor support for creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 22(1), 37-45.

Koch, A. J., D'Mello, S. D., & Sackett, P. R. (2015). A meta-analysis of gender stereotypes and bias in experimental simulations of employment decision making. Journal of applied psychology, 100(1), 128.

Koenig, A. M., & Eagly, A. H. (2014). Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups’ roles shape stereotypes. Journal of personality and social psychology, 107(3), 371.

Laguía, A., Moriano, J. A., & Gorgievski, M. J. (2019). A psychosocial study of self-perceived creativity and entrepreneurial intentions in a sample of university students. Thinking skills and creativity, 31, 44-57.

Lee, A., Legood, A., Hughes, D., Tian, A. W., Newman, A., & Knight, C. (2020). Leadership, creativity and innovation: A meta-analytic review. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 29(1), 1-35.

Liao, H., Liu, D., & Loi, R. (2010). Looking at both sides of the social exchange coin: A social cognitive perspective on the joint effects of relationship quality and differentiation on creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 53(5), 1090-1109.

Liu, D., Jiang, K., Shalley, C. E., Keem, S., & Zhou, J. (2016). Motivational mechanisms of employee creativity: A meta-analytic examination and theoretical extension of the creativity literature. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 137, 236-263.

Lopes, T., & Thomas, B. (2006). Dancing on live embers: Challenging racism in organizations: Between the Lines.

Luksyte, A., Unsworth, K. L., & Avery, D. R. (2018). Innovative work behavior and sex‐based stereotypes: Examining sex differences in perceptions and evaluations of innovative work behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(3), 292-305.

Maliakkal, N. T., & Reiter-Palmon, R. (2022). The Effects of Leader Support for Creativity and Leader Gender on Subordinate Creative Problem-Solving Performance. The Journal of Creative Behavior. 57(1), 109-126.

Mathisen, G. E., & Einarsen, S. (2004). A review of instruments assessing creative and innovative environments within organizations. Creativity Research Journal, 16(1), 119-140.

Mulligan, C. (2010). In a first, women surpass men on US payrolls. New York Times, February, 6, A10.

Muthén, B., & Asparouhov, T. (2018). Multidimensional, Multilevel, and Multi-Timepoint Item Response Modeling Handbook of item response theory (pp. 527-539): Chapman and Hall/CRC.

Nembhard, I. M., & Edmondson, A. C. (2006). Making it safe: The effects of leader inclusiveness and professional status on psychological safety and improvement efforts in health care teams. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 27(7), 941-966.

Newton, N. J., Ottley, K. M., Williams, S. K., & Hill, T. (2022). Women coming to terms with aging: the importance of psychosocial factors. Journal of Women & Aging, 34(1), 123-137.

Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2010). The impact of job embeddedness on innovation‐related behaviors. Human resource management, 49(6), 1067-1087.

Oldham, G. R., & Cummings, A. (1996). Employee creativity: Personal and contextual factors at work. Academy of Management Journal, 39(3), 607-634.

Olsson, M., & Martiny, S. E. (2018). Does exposure to counterstereotypical role models influence girls’ and women’s gender stereotypes and career choices? A review of social psychological research. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 2264.

Organization, I. L. (2015). Women in business and management gaining momentum.

Parke, M. R., Seo, M.-G., Hu, X., & Jin, S. (2022). The creative and cross-functional benefits of wearing hearts on sleeves: Authentic affect climate, information elaboration, and team creativity. Organization Science, 33(2), 600-623.

Paunonen, S. V., & Hong, R. Y. (2010). Self‐efficacy and the prediction of domain‐specific cognitive abilities. Journal of personality, 78(1), 339-360.

Preacher, K. J., Zhang, Z., & Zyphur, M. J. (2016). Multilevel structural equation models for assessing moderation within and across levels of analysis. Psychological methods, 21(2), 189.

Proudfoot, D., Kay, A. C., & Koval, C. Z. (2015). A gender bias in the attribution of creativity: Archival and experimental evidence for the perceived association between masculinity and creative thinking. Psychological science, 26(11), 1751-1761.

Reis, S. M., & Holinger, M. (2021). Creative productive eminence in talented women: beliefs, motivation, and drive to create. Gifted and Talented International, 36(1-2), 44-54..

Richardson, C., & Mishra, P. (2018). Learning environments that support student creativity: Developing the SCALE. Thinking skills and creativity, 27, 45-54.

Richardson, H. A., Simmering, M. J., & Sturman, M. C. (2009). A tale of three perspectives: Examining post hoc statistical techniques for detection and correction of common method variance. Organizational Research Methods, 12(4), 762-800.

Ridgeway, C. L. (2014). Why status matters for inequality. American sociological review, 79(1), 1-16.

Rodenborg, N. A., & Boisen, L. A. (2013). Aversive racism and intergroup contact theories: Cultural competence in a segregated world. Journal of Social Work Education, 49(4), 564-579.

Rosenthal, R. (2002). The Pygmalion effect and its mediating mechanisms Improving academic achievement (pp. 25-36): Elsevier.

Rudman, L. A., & Glick, P. (2001). Prescriptive gender stereotypes and backlash toward agentic women. Journal of social issues, 57(4), 743-762.

Schilpzand, P., Houston, L., & Cho, J. (2018). Not too tired to be proactive: Daily empowering leadership spurs next-morning employee proactivity as moderated by nightly sleep quality. Academy of Management Journal, 61(6), 2367-2387.

Shalley, C. E., & Lemoine, G. J. (2018). Leader behaviors and employee creativity: Taking stock of the current state of research. Creative Leadership, 79-94.

Shalley, C. E., Zhou, J., & Oldham, G. R. (2004). The effects of personal and contextual characteristics on creativity: Where should we go from here? Journal of management, 30(6), 933-958.

Suifan, T. S., Abdallah, A. B., & Al Janini, M. (2018). The impact of transformational leadership on employees’ creativity: The mediating role of perceived organizational support. Management Research Review. 41(1), 113-132.

Taylor, C., Ivcevic, Z., Moeller, J., & Brackett, M. (2020). Gender and support for creativity at work. Creativity and Innovation Management, 29(3), 453-464.

Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. M. (2002). Creative self-efficacy: Its potential antecedents and relationship to creative performance. Academy of Management Journal, 45(6), 1137-1148.

Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. M. (2011). Creative self-efficacy development and creative performance over time. Journal of applied psychology, 96(2), 277.

Tyagi, V., Hanoch, Y., Hall, S. D., Runco, M., & Denham, S. L. (2017). The risky side of creativity: Domain specific risk taking in creative individuals. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 145.

Van Laar, C., Derks, B., & Ellemers, N. (2016). Motivation for education and work in young Muslim women: The importance of value for ingroup domains Social Psychological Perspectives on Stigma (pp. 72-82): Routledge.

Walton, A. P., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2012). Creativity in its social context: The interplay of organizational norms, situational threat, and gender. Creativity Research Journal, 24(2-3), 208-219.

Walumbwa, F. O., Christensen-Salem, A., Hsu, I.-C., & Misati, E. (2018). Creative self-efficacy and creative performance: understanding the underlying mechanisms. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Proceedings. (Vol. 2018, No. 1, p. 10208). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management

Wang, X.-H. F., Kim, T.-Y., & Lee, D.-R. (2016). Cognitive diversity and team creativity: Effects of team intrinsic motivation and transformational leadership. Journal of business research, 69(9), 3231-3239.

Wijewardena, N., Samaratunge, R., Kumara, A. S., Newman, A., & Abeysekera, L. (2020). It takes a family to lighten the load! The impact of family-to-business support on the stress and creativity of women micro-entrepreneurs in Sri Lanka. Personnel Review. 49(9), 1965-1986.

Witt, M. G., & Wood, W. (2010). Self-regulation of gendered behavior in everyday life. Sex Roles, 62(9), 635-646.

Woodman, R. W., Sawyer, J. E., & Griffin, R. W. (1993). Toward a theory of organizational creativity. Academy of management review, 18(2), 293-321.

Wu, J., Richard, O. C., Triana, M. d. C., & Zhang, X. (2022). The performance impact of gender diversity in the top management team and board of directors: A multiteam systems approach. Human resource management, 61(2), 157-180.

Zhang, P., Jiang, M., Adeel, A., & Yaseen, A. (2018). The effects of social relationships and the justice environment on creative idea endorsement. IEEE Access, 6, 44340-44350.

Zhou, J., Wang, X. M., Bavato, D., Tasselli, S., & Wu, J. (2019). Understanding the receiving side of creativity: A multidisciplinary review and implications for management research. Journal of management, 45(6), 2570-2595.


Dini Turipanam Alamanda (Primary Contact)
Adel Ahmed
Dedy Achmad Kurniady
Agus Rahayu
Israr Ahmad
Nik Alif Amri Nik Hashim
Alamanda, D. T., Ahmed, A., Kurniady, D. A., Rahayu, A., Ahmad, I., & Hashim , N. A. A. N. (2024). Linking Gender To Creativity: Role of Risk Taking and Support For Creativity Towards Creative Potential of Employees. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 24(1), 1–17.

Article Details

Smart Citations via scite_
  • Abstract 948
  • Download PDF 164
  • XML 0

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.