Developing Senior Eccleasiastical Professionals’ Emotional and Cultural Intelligence - A Longitudinal Preliminary Case Study Research Investigation

Claude-Hélène Mayer (1), Rian Viviers (2), Aden-Paul Flotman (3), Detlef Schneider-Stenge (4)
(1) Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology UNISA, South Africa, South Africa,
(2) Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology UNISA, South Africa, South Africa,
(3) Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, UNISA, South Africa, South Africa,
(4) Bischöfliches Generalsekretariat, Essen, Germany, Germany

Abstract

Emotional intelligence (EI) and cultural intelligence (CQ) are constructs that have recently received much attention and have been investigated in work contexts. It is possible that a high EI and CQ both contribute generally to improved intercultural and interreligious understanding and dialogue. However, this relationship has hardly been researched in eccleasiastical contexts in Germany. This study investigates the development of EI and CQ during a 12-day training course for developing intercultural and interreligious competencies for senior professionals in an ecclesiastical context over a period of nine months. Pre- and post-test scores of EI and CQ were measured during the training period. Besides the quantitative survey, a literature analysis and participant observation in the training course was used for data collection. It was found that with regard to the EI total scores, all dimensions except the dimension of "appraisal of emotions in the self" improved from the beginning of the training until the end. Looking at the pre- and post-scores of CQ, the scores increased in six participants, and decreased in two.

Full text article

Generated from XML file

References

Abdool, A.D., & Drinkwater, M. (2005). Guidelines to create a positive classroom climate for Religion Education: an empathetic approach: International Network for Interreligious and Intercultural Education. Scriptura: International Journal of Bible, Religion and Theology in Southern Africa, 89, 363. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7833/89-0-1023

Adler, N.J. (2002). International dimensions of organizational behaviour. 4th edition. Cincinnati, OH: South Western College.

Alon, I. & Higgins, J.M. (2005). Global leadership success through emotional and cultural intelligences. Business Horizons, 48, 8, 501-512. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2005.04.003

Ang, S. & Inkpen, A.C. (2008). Cultural Intelligence and Offshore outsourcing success: a framework of firm-level intercultural capability. Decision Sciences, 39(3): 337-358. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.2008.00195.x

Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., & Koh, C. (2006). Personality correlates of the four-factor model of cultural intelligence. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 100-123. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601105275267

Ang, S., & Van Dyne, L. (2015). Handbook of cultural intelligence. New York: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315703855

Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., Yee Ng, K, Templer, K.J., Tay, C. & Chandrasekar, N. (2007). Cultural intelligence: its measurement and effects on cultural judgement and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance. Management and Organization Review, 3(3):335-371. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2007.00082.x

Allievi, S. (2014). Immigration, religious diversity and recognition of differences: the Italian way to multiculturalism. Identities, 21(6), 724-737. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1070289X.2013.828623

Arweck, E., Nesbitt, E., & Jackson, R. (2005). Educating the next generation in universal values? Hindu-related new religious movements and values education in the common school: International Network for Interreligious and Intercultural Education. Scriptura: International Journal of Bible, Religion and Theology in Southern Africa, 89, 328. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7833/89-0-1020

Barling, J., Slater, F., & Kevin Kelloway, E. (2000). Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: An exploratory study. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21(3), 157-161. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730010325040

Bar-On, R. (1997). The bar-on model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI). Issues in Emotional Intelligence, 1, 4, 1-28.

Behrnd, V., & Porzelt, S. (2012). Intercultural competence and training outcomes of students with experiences abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(2), 213-223. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.04.005

Billard, A., Greer, J.M., Sneck, W., Sheers, N.J., & Merrick, M.E. (2005). Relationships between spiritual transcendence and emotional intelligence among older Catholic nuns. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 16, 41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047417675_007

Bouma, G. D. (1995). The emergence of religious plurality in Australia: A multicultural society†. Sociology of Religion, 56(3), 285-302. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3711824

Breverton, P. & Millward, L. (2004). Organisational research methods. A guide for students and researchers. London: Sage.

Brislin, R. & Worthley, R. (2006). Cultural intelligence: Understanding behaviours that serve people’s goals. Group & Organization Management, 31, 1, 40-55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601105275262

Brouwers, S.A., & van de Vijver, F.J. (2015). Contextualizing intelligence in assessment: The next step. Human Resource Management Review, 25(1), 38-46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2014.09.006

Cargile, A. C., & Giles, H. (2012). 10 Intercultural communication training: Review, critique, and new theoretical framework. Communication Yearbook 19, 385. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.1996.11678936

Carmeli, A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes: An examination among senior managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(8), 788-813. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940310511881

Carmeli, A. & Josman, Z.E. (2006). The relationship among emotional intelligence, task performance and organizational citizenship behaviours. Human Performance, 19, 4, 403-419. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1904_5

Caruso, D.R. (2015). International negotiation and emotional intelligence. In Handbook of International Negotiation (pp. 181-189). Zürich: Springer International Publishing. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10687-8_14

Caruso, D.R., Fleming, K. & Spector, E.D. (2014). Emotional intelligence leadership. In G.R. Goethals, S.T. Allison, R.M. Kramer & D.M. Messick (eds). Concepts of leadership: Enduring ideas and emerging insights (pp. 93-110). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137472038_6

Cheldelin, S., Druckman, D. & Fast, L. (2003). Conflict: From analysis to intervention. New York: Continuum.

Ciarrochi, J., Chan, A.Y.C. & Bajgar, J. (2001). Measuring emotional intelligence in adolescents. Personlity and Individual Differences, 31, 1105-1119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00207-5

Creswell, J. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Chosing amongapproaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Coelho, P. (2011). Aleph. London: Harper Collins.

Collis, J., & Hussey, R. (2003). Business research: A practical guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students. (2:nd ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillian.

Conway, A.R., & Kovacs, K. (2015). New and emerging models of human intelligence. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 6(5), 419-426. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.1356

Crowne, K.A. (2012). The relationship among social intelligence, emotional intelligence and cultural intelligence. Organization Management Journal, 6, 3, 148-163. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/omj.2009.20

Earley, P.C., & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9780804766005

Earley, P.C., Ang, S., & Tan, J.S. (2006). CQ: Developing cultural intelligence at work. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781503619715

Earley, P.C., & Peterson, R.S. (2004). The elusive cultural chameleon: Cultural intelligence as a new approach to intercultural training for the global manager. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3(1), 100-115. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2004.12436826

Fleishman, J.A. (2007). Global self-rated mental health: Associations with other mental health measures and with role functioning. Medical Care, 45, 7, 602-609. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0b013e31803bb4b0

Florent-Treacy, E. (2011, 07). Writing the "Good Enough" Executive Master Thesis - A Quick Start Guide. Fontainebleau: IGLC .

Geertz, C. (1987). La interpretación de las culturas. Barcelona: Gedisa.

George, J.M. (2000). Emotions and leadership: The role of emotional intelligence. Human Relations, 53(8), 1027-1055. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726700538001

German Catholic Bishops’ Conference Report. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.ccjr.us/dialogika-resources/documents-and-statements/roman-catholic/other-conferences-of-catholic-bishops

Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago: Aldine.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2013). Primal leadership: Unleashing the power of emotional intelligence. Massachusettes: Harvard Business Press.

Grant, A. M. (2007). Enhancing coaching skills and emotional intelligence through training. Industrial and Commercial Training, 39(5), 257-266. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/00197850710761945

Gummer, C. (2014, September 2). Losing faith. Wall Street Journal, p. 1.

Hays, S. (1999). American express taps into the power of emotional intelligence. Workforce, 78, 7, 72-74.

Helms, M.M., Rutti, R.M., Lorenz, M., Ramsey, J., & Armstrong, C.E. (2014). A quest for global entrepreneurs: the importance of cultural intelligence on commitment to entrepreneurial education. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 23(3), 385-404. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJESB.2014.065528

Hendron, J.A., Irving, P., & Taylor, B.J. (2014). The emotionally intelligent ministry: why it matters. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 17(5), 470-478. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13674676.2013.848424

Hoffman, B.J. & Frost, B. C. (2006). Multiple intelligences of transformational leaders: An empirical examination. International Journal of Manpower, 27, 37-51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01437720610652826

Janssens, M., & Brett, J.M. 2006. Cultural intelligence in global teams: A fusion model of collaboration. Group and Organization Management,31: 124–153. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601105275268

Jenkins, P. (2015). Changes and trends in clobal Christianity. The Globalization of Christianity: Implications for Christian Ministry and Theology, 6, 15.

Johnson, S.J., Batey, M., & Holdsworth, L. (2009). Personality and health: The mediating role of trait emotional intelligence and work locus of control. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(5), 470-475. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.04.025

Kasper, W. (2015). The Catholic Church: Nature, Reality and Mission. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Kafetsios, K., & Zampetakis, L. A. (2008). Emotional intelligence and job satisfaction: Testing the mediatory role of positive and negative affect at work. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(3), 712-722. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.10.004

Lamnek, S. (2005): Qualitative Sozialforschung. Lehrbuch. 4. Auflage. Weinheim/Basel: Beltz.

Landis, D., & Brislin, R.W. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of intercultural training: Issues in training methodology (Vol. 116). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Leander, A. B. (2014). Intercultural leadership: A mixed methods study of leader cultural intelligence and leadership practices in diversity-oriented churches. Eastern University, Adelphi, New York.

Leavy, P. (2014). The Oxford handbook of qualitative research. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199811755.001.0001

Livermore, D.A. (2009). Cultural intelligence (youth, family, and culture): Improving your CQ to engage our multicultural world. Ada, MI: Baker Academic.

Livermore, D. A. (2012). Serving with eyes wide open: Doing short-term missions with cultural intelligence. Ada, MI: Baker Academic.

Livermore, D. (2015). Leading with cultural intelligence: The real secret to success. AMACOM Div American Management Association.

Lopes, P.N., Grewal, D., Kadis, J., Gall, M., & Salovey, P. (2006). Evidence that emotional intelligence is related to job performance and affect and attitudes at work. Psicothema, 18(1), 132-138.

Lopes, P.N., Salovey, P., & Straus, R. (2003). Emotional intelligence, personality, and the perceived quality of social relationships. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(3), 641-658. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00242-8

Manning, T.T. (2003). Leadership across cultures: Attachment style influences. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 9(1): 20-32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/107179190300900304

Mayer, C.-H. (2008). Managing conflict across cultures, values and identities. A case study in the South African automotive industry. Wissenschaftliche Beiträge aus dem Tectum Verlag, Reihe: Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Band 20. Marburg: Tectum Verlag.

Mayer, C-H. (2011). The meaning of sense of coherence in transcultural management. Münster: Waxmann.

Mayer, C.-H. & Boness, C.M. (2013). Creating mental health across cultures. coaching and training for managers. Lengerich: Pabst Publishers.

Mayer, J.D., Roberts, R.D. & Barsade, S.G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. The Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507-536. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093646

McGlone, G.J., Ortiz, F.A., & Karney, R.J. (2010). A survey study of psychological assessment practices in the screening and admission process of candidates to the priesthood in the US Catholic church. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41(6), 526. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021546

McNett, J. & Bird, A. (2002). Experiential teaching and learning in international management. Insights, 2, 2: 11-12.

Milan, G., & Damini, M. (2012). Chapter seven. Building intercultural competence in understanding religion through cooperative learning. B. Breningser & T. Kaltenbacher (Ed.). Creating Cultural Synergies: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Interculturality and Interreligiosity (106-120). Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Ng, K.Y., Van Dyne, L., & Ang, S. (2009). From experience to experiential learning: Cultural intelligence as a learning capability for global leader development. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 8(4), 511-526. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.8.4.zqr511

O’Reilly, K. (2012). Ethnographic returning, qualitative longitudinal research and the reflexive analysis of social practice. Sociological Review, 60, 518–536. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2012.02097.x

Ortiz, S.O. (2015). CHC theory of intelligence. In S. Goldstein, D. Princiotta & J.A. Naglieri (Eds.). Handbook of Intelligence (pp. 209-227). New York: Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-1562-0_15

Otten, M. (2003). Intercultural learning and diversity in higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 7, 1, 12-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315302250177

Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (3:rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Pau, A.K., & Croucher, R. (2003). Emotional intelligence and perceived stress in dental undergraduates. Journal of Dental Education, 67, (9) 1023-1028. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.0022-0337.2003.67.9.tb03685.x

Plante, T.G. (2015). Six principles to consider when working with Roman Catholic clients.Spirituality in Clinical Practice, Jul 6, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/scp0000075 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/scp0000075

Plum, E. (2009). Cultural Intelligence: the art of leading cultural complexity. London: Middlesex University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/1499224.1499280

Ramirez, A.R. (2010). Impact of cultural intelligence level on conflict resolution ability: A conceptual model and research proposal. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 3(1), 42-56.

Rah, S.C. (2010). Many colors: Cultural intelligence for a changing church. Chicago: Moody Publishers.

Rockstuhl, T., Seiler, S., Ang, S., Van Dyne, L. & Annen, H. (2011). Beyond general intelligence (IQ) and emotional intelligence (EQ): The role of cultural intelligence (CQ) on cross-border leadership effectiveness in a globalized world. Journal of Social Issues, 67, 4, 2011, 825-840. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2011.01730.x

Saklofske, D.H., Austin, E.J., & Mgnski, P.S. (2003). Factor structure and validity of a trait emotional intelligence measure. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 702–721. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00056-9

Salkind, N. (2012). Exploring research. Boston: Pearson.

Slaski, M., & Cartwright, S. (2003). Emotional intelligence training and its implications for stress, health and performance. Stress and Health, 19(4), 233-239.

Salovey, P. & Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional Intelligence.Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2190/DUGG-P24E-52WK-6CDG

Sax, H.C., & Gewertz, B.L. (2015). Understanding emotional intelligence and its role in leadership. Leadership in Surgery, 67-78. Zürich: Springer International Publishing. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11107-0_6

Schutte, N.S., Malouff, J.M., Hall, L.E., Haggerty, D.J., Cooper, J.T., Golden, C.J., et al. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167-177. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00001-4

Slaski, M. & Cartwright, S. (2003). Emotional intelligence and its implications for stress, health and performance. Stress and Health, 19(4), 233-239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.979

Sternberg, R.J. 1986. A framework for understanding conceptions of intelligence. In R.J. Sternberg & D. K. Detterman (eds.), What is intelligence? Contemporary viewpoints on its nature and definition.3–15. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Thomas, D.C. (2006). Domain and development of cultural intelligence, the importance of mindfulness. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 78-99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601105275266

Triandis, H.C. (2006). Cultural intelligence in organizations. Group and Organization Management,31, 20–26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601105275253

Van Dyne, L., Ang, S. & Livermore, D. (2010). Cultural intelligence: a pathway for leading in a rapidly globalizing world. In K.M. Hannum, B. McFeeters, & L. Booysen (eds) Leadership across differences: cases and perspectives. San Franscisco, CQ: Pfeiffer.

Vale, J. M. (2014). The healthy pastor: A holistic approach to pastoral training. PhD thesis, Reformed Theological Seminary Charlotte, North Carolina June.

Van Rooy, D. L., Alonso, A., & Viswesvaran, C. (2005). Group differences in emotional intelligence test scores: Theoretical and practical implications. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 689-700. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2004.05.023

Von Steinke, I. (2008). Gütekriterien qualitativer Forschung. In Flick, U., von Kardorff, E. & Steinke, I. (Eds.): Qualitative Forschung. Ein Handbuch. 6. Auflage. Reinbek: Rowohlt: 319-331.

Weigel, G. (2015). The Catholic Church’s German Crisis. Retrieved on 19 August 2015 from www.firstthings.com.

Westby, C. (2007). Being smart in a diverse world. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 29, 1, 7-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1525740108314867

Wing, J.F., Schutte, N.S. & Byrne, B. (2006). The effect of positive writing on emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(19), 1291-1302. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20292

Wong, C.-S., & Law, K. S. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 243–274. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(02)00099-1

Wood, E.D. & St. Peters, H.Y. (2014). Short-term cross-cultural study tours: impact on cultural intelligence. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(4), 558-570. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2013.796315

Woods Jr, T.E. (2012). How the Catholic Church built western civilization. Washington: Regnery Publishing.

Zapp, A. (2012). Managers and leaders: Are they different? Harvard Business Review, 70(2), 1-11.

Authors

Claude-Hélène Mayer
claudemayer@gmx.net (Primary Contact)
Rian Viviers
Aden-Paul Flotman
Detlef Schneider-Stenge
Author Biographies

Claude-Hélène Mayer, Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology UNISA, South Africa

Claude-Hélène Mayer is Adjunct Professor at the Institut für Therapeutische Kommunikation und Sprachgebrauch at the Europa-Universität Viadrina in Frankfurt (Oder), Germany, and Visiting Professor at the Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa. Her research interests are transcultural health in organisations, conflict mediation across cultures, gender in leadership, transcultural coaching, psychobiography, EQ and CQ.

Rian Viviers, Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology UNISA, South Africa

Rian Viviers is a professor in the Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology at the University of South Africa (Unisa) in Pretoria, South Africa.  His area of specialisation is Salutogenesis and Positive Psychology, but other fields within IO Psychology have also been taught and explored in research articles.

Aden-Paul Flotman, Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, UNISA, South Africa

Aden-Paul Flotman is senior lecturer and a PhD student in the Industrial and Organisational Psychology Department at the University of South Africa. His tuition responsibilities include Workplace Dynamics, Change Management and Coaching Psychology. Aden-Paul has a keen interest in inter-cultural dynamics from a systems psychodynamic perspective, language use as manifestation of leadership anxiety dynamics, somatic intelligence and emotional toxicity in organisations.

Detlef Schneider-Stenge, Bischöfliches Generalsekretariat, Essen, Germany

Detlef Schneider-Stengel is a diocesan referee for intercultural dialogue at the diocese Essen, Germany. He is an expert with research interest in interreligious and intercultural dialogues, Christian-Islamic dialogue in Germany, migration and integration, spirituality and arts of living.

Mayer, C.-H., Viviers, R., Flotman, A.-P., & Schneider-Stenge, D. (2016). Developing Senior Eccleasiastical Professionals’ Emotional and Cultural Intelligence - A Longitudinal Preliminary Case Study Research Investigation. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 16(2), 1018. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v16i2.719

Article Details

Smart Citations via scite_