Managerial Values in Transcultural Conflicts in South Africa Findings from the Schwartz-Value-Model

Claude-Hélène Mayer (1), Lynette Louw (2)
(1) Department of Management, Rhodes University, South Africa, South Africa,
(2) Department of Management, Rhodes University, South Africa, South Africa

Abstract

The significant globalisation and post-apartheid challenges faced by managers in international organisations in South Africa are well known. Coping with transcultural conflicts is one of the major challenges. The aim of this article is to assess managerial values and their occurrence in transcultural conflicts in the international automotive organisation in South Africa. The Schwartz Value Model is used as theoretical background. This empirical study is a qualitative case study research. It presents selected qualitative findings on values in transcultural conflicts in the selected organisation. Findings show culture-specific insights into the selected international South African organisations and lead to conclusions and recommendations for further research and international management in South Africa.

Full text article

Generated from XML file

References

Anstey, M. (1997), “New ball game”, Productivity SA, January/February, pp. 7-10.

Babbie, E and Mouton, J (2006), The practice of Social Research, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Bardi, A. and Schwartz, S.H. (2003), “Values and behavior: Strength and structure of relations”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 29, pp. 1207-1220. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167203254602

Beaty, D.T. (1996), “Eurocentric or Afrocentric?”, Mastering Management, March, Vol. 15.

Beaty, DT and Booysen, L (1998), “Managing transformation and change”, Swanepoel, BJ (Ed.), South African Human Resource Management: Theory and practice, Juta, Cape Town, pp. 725-746.

Berkel, K. (2005), “Wertkonflikte als Drama – Reflexion statt Training”, Wirtschaftspsychologie, Themenheft Konfliktprozesse in der betrieblichen Lebenswelt – Theorie, Konzepte, Pragmatik, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 2-8.

Binedell, N. (1992), “New approachesm”, People Dynamics, March Vol. 10, No. 3), pp. 1-11.

Bluen, S.D. and Barling, J. (1983), “Work values in White South African Males”, Journal of Transcultural Psychology, September Vol. 14, pp. 329-335. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002183014003006

Bond, S. (2004), “Organisational culture and work-life conflict in the UK”, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, Vol. 24, No. 12, pp. 1-24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01443330410790795

Boness, C.M. (2002), Kritische Situationen in Begegnungen zwischen Tansaniern und Europäern. Eine Felduntersuchung im Secondary School System Tansanias, Peter Lang, Frankfurt.

Booyse, L. (2001), “The duality in South African leadership: Afrocentric or Eurocentric”, South African Journal of Labour Relations, pp. 36-64.

Booysen, AE (1999), An examination of race and gender influences on the leadership attributes of South African managers, unpublished DBL dissertation, University of South Africa, Pretoria.

Booysen, L. (2000), “Cultural differences between African Black and White managers in South Africa”, paper presented at “Africa's Century: Challenges for Management and Leadership”, Southern Africa Institute for Management Scientists 12th Annual Conference, 30 October to 2 November 2008, Johannesburg.

Booysen, L. and Nkomo, S. (2007), “The tea incident case study: Lessons in social identity tensions, diversity and social identity conflict management”, The International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations, Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 97-106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18848/1447-9532/CGP/v07i05/39481

Bornman, E. (2003), “Struggles of identity in the age of globalization”, South African Journal of Communication Theory and Research, Vol. 29, No. (1 and 2), pp. 24-47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02500160308538019

Burgess, S.M. and Harris, M. (1998), “Values, optimum stimulation levels and brand loyalty: New scales in new populations”, Working Paper, Number 210, https://www.bus.umich.edu/KresgeLibrary/Collections/Workingpapers/wdi/wp210.pdf, 04 May 2009.

Cheldelin, S, Druckman, D and Fast, L (2003), “Conflict: From analysis to intervention”, Continuum, New York.

Christie, P (1996), Stories from an Afman(ager)!, Sigma Press, Pretoria.

Chrobot-Mason, D., Ruderman, M.N., Weber, T.J., Ohlott, P.J. and Dalton, M.A. (2007), “Illuminating a transcultural leadership challenge: When identity groups collide”, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 18, No. 11, pp. 2011–2036. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190701639778

Colby, A and Kohlberg, L (1978), “Das moralische Urteil: Der kognitionszentrierte entwicklungspsychologische Ansatz”, in Steiner, G. (Ed.), Die Psychologie des 20. Jahrhunderts, Band VII: Piaget und die Folgen, Kindler, Zürich.

De Vos, AS and Fouché, CB (1998), “General introduction to research design, data collection methods and data analyses”, in de Vos, A.S., Research at grass roots: A primer for the caring profession, JL van Schaik Publishers, Pretoria.

Denton, M. and Vloeberghs, D. (2003), “Leadership challenges for organizations in the new South Africa”, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 84-95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730310463279

Druckmann, D., Broom, B.J. and Korper, S.H. (1988), “Value differences and conflict resolution: Facilitation or delinking?”, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 234-251. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002788032003005

Fish, A., Bhanugopan, R. and Cogin, J. (2008), “Value orientations as predictors of cultural and business impact: Individual suitability for cross-border assignments”, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 30-48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13527600810848818

Fletcher, M. (1999), “Effective communication: Prerequisite for successful service quality implementation, a South African perspective”, Communicare, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 53-67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36615/jcsa.v18i1.1849

Gandal, N., Roccas, S., Sagiv, L. and Wrzesniewski, A. (2005), “Personal value priorities of economists”, Human Relations, Vol. 58, No. 10, pp. 1227-1252. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726705058911

Geertz, C (1987), Dichte Beschreibung. Beiträge zum Verstehen kultureller Systeme, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt.

Harris, C., Daniels, K. and Briner, R.B. (2003), “A daily diary study of goals and affective well-being at work”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 76, pp. 401-410. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1348/096317903769647256

Hart. G.P. (2002), Disabling globalization: Places of power in post-apartheid South Africa: University of California Press, Berkeley.

Hofstede, G. (1985), Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values, (abridged edition),Sage Publications, Beverly Hills.

Hofstede, G. (1993), Interkulturelle Zusammenarbeit: Kulturen-Organisationen-Management, Gabler, Wiesbaden. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-322-90037-1

Hofstede, G. (1997), Lokales Denken, globales Handeln. Kulturen, Zusammenarbeit und Management, Beck, München.

Hofstede, G. (1998), “Attitudes, values and organizational culture: disentangling the concepts”, Organization Studies, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 477-92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/017084069801900305

Horowitz, S.V. and Boardman, S.K. (1994), “Managing conflict: Policy and research implications”, Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 197-211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1994.tb02405.x

Huntington, S and Harrison, LE (2004), Streit um Werte. Wie Kulturen den Fortschritt prägen, Goldmann, München.

Inglehart, R. and Abramson P.R. (1994), “Economic security and value change”, The American Political Science Review, Vol. 88, pp. 336-354. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2944708

Kitayama, S. and Markus, H.R. (1991), “Culture and the Self: Implications for cognition, emotion and motivation”, Psychological Review, Vol. 98, No. 2, pp. 224-253. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224

Klages, H. and Gensicke, T. (2006), “Wertesynthese – Funktional oder dysfunktional?”, Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 332-351. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11575-006-0058-x

Kluckhohn, F.R. and Stroedbeck, F.L. (1961), Variations in Value-Orientations, Row, Peterson and Company, Evanston.

Kohlberg, L. (1976), “Moral stages and moralization: The cognitive development approach”, in Kohlberg, L. (ed.), Moral development and behaviour, Holt, Rinehart and Winston New York.

Kokt, D. (2003), “The impact of cultural diversity on work team performance: A South African perspective”, Team Performance Management, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 78-83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13527590310482262

Kromrey, H (1998), Empirische Sozialforschung (8:th ed.),Leske und Budrich, Opladen. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-322-85563-3

Kropp, F. and Lindsay, N.J. (2001), “South African business dynamics: Measuring entrepreneurship”, Journal of African Business, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 23-45. http://www.isbee.org/index.php?option=com_docmanandtask=cat_viewandgid=25andItemid=39andorder=nameanddir=ASC, 05 May 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1300/J156v02n01_03

Malka, A. and Chatman, J.A. (2003), “Intrinsic and extrinsic orientations as moderators of the effect of annual income on subjective well-being: A longitudinal study”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 29, pp. 737-746. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167203029006006

Manning, T (1997), Radical strategy. How South African companies can win against global Competition, Zebra Press, Sandton.

Mayer, C-H (2001), Werteorientierungen an Sekundarschulen in Tanzania vor dem Hintergrund interkultureller und inner-afrikanischer Wertediskussionen, Ibidem-Verlag, Stuttgart.

Mayer, C.-H. (2005), Mauern aus Glas. Südafrikanische Narrationen zu Differenz, Konflikt und Identität. Münster: Waxmann.

Mayer, C-H (2008), “Managing conflict across cultures, values and identities. A case study in the South African automotive industry”, PhD dissertation, Rhodes University, Band 20: Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Tectum Verlag, Marburg.

Mayton, D.M., Ball-Rokeach, S.J. and Loges, W.E. (1994), “Human values and social issues: An introduction”, in Mayton, D.M., Loges, W.E., Ball-Rokeach, S.J. and Grube, J.W. (Eds.), “Human values and social issues: Current understanding and implications for the future”, Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 1-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1994.tb01194.x

Miller, R., Glen, J., Jaspersen, F. and Karmokolias, Y. (1997), “International joint ventures in developing countries”, Finance and Development, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 10-26.

Moore, C.W. (1996), The Mediation Process. Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict (2:nd ed.) Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Nel, P.S., van Dyk, P.S., Haasbroek, G.D., Schultz, H.B., Sono, T. and Werner, A. (2004), Human Resource Management (6:th ed.),Oxford University Press, Cape Town.

Neto, F., Mullet, E., Dechamps, J.-C., Barros, J., Benvindo, R., Camino, L., Falconi, A., Kagibanga, V. and Machado, M. (2000), “Transcultural variations in attitudes toward love”, Journal of Transcultural Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 626-635. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022100031005005

Oishi, S., Schimmack, U., Diener, E. and Suh, E.M. (1998), “The measurement of values and individualism-collectivism”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 24, No. 11, pp. 1177-1189. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672982411005

Organisational paper (2002a), “Employment Equity and Affirmative Action Policy”, Internal Paper, PZ/HRP/Vm.

Organisational paper (2002b), “Grievance Procedure”, Internal Paper, PZ/HRP/Vm.

Organisational paper (2006a), “Annual Report: Organisation Group 2005”, Galaxi Supermat, Paper Union Gmbh.

Organisational paper (2006b), “Organisation Truck and Bus – Southern Africa”. Company Profile 2005, Internal Paper.

Piaget, J. (1984), Psychologie der Intelligenz, Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart.

Pool, S.W. (2000), “Organizational culture and its relationship between job tension in measuring outcomes among business executives”, Journal of Management Development, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 32-49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02621710010308144

Rohan, M.J. (2000), “A rose by any name? The values construct”, Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 4, pp. 255-277. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327957PSPR0403_4

Rokeach, M (1973), The nature of human values, Free Press, New York.

Schwartz, S.H. (1992) “Universals in the content and structure of values: Theory and empirical tests in 20 countries”, in Zanna, M. (ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, Academic Press, New York, pp. 1-65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60281-6

Schwartz, S.H. (1994), “Are there universal aspects in the content and structure of values?”, Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 50, pp. 19-45. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1994.tb01196.x

Schwartz, S.H. (1999), “A theory of cultural values and some implications for work”, Applied Psychology: An international Review, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 23-47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1999.tb00047.x

Schwartz, S.H. (2007), “Universalism values and the inclusiveness of our moral universe”, Journal of Transcultural Psychology, Vol. 38, No. 6, pp. 711-728. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022107308992

Schwartz, S.H. and Bardi, A. (2001), “Value hierarchies across cultures: Taking a similarities perspective”, Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, Vol. 32, pp. 268-290. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022101032003002

Schwartz, S.H. and Bilsky, W. (1987), “Toward a universal psychological structure of human values”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 550- 562. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.53.3.550

Schwartz, S.H., Melech, G., Lehmann, A., Burgess, S., Harris, M. and Owens, V. (2001), “Extending the transcultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement”, Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, Vol. 32, pp. 519-542. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022101032005001

Schwartz, S.H. and Sagiv, L. (1995), “Identifying culture-specifics in the content and structure of values”, Journal of Transcultural Psychology, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 92-116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022195261007

Schwartz, T. (1992), “Anthropology and psychology. An unrequired relationship”, in Schwartz, T., White, G. and Lutz, G. (Eds.), New directions in Psychological Anthropology, University Press, Cambridge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511621857.017

Smith, P.B., Peterson, M.F. and Schwartz, S.H. (2002), “Cultural values, sources and guidance and their relevance to managerial behaviour: A 47-nation study”, Journal of Transcultural Psychology, Vol. 33, pp. 188-208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022102033002005

Spini, D. (2003), “Measurement equivalence of 10 value types from The Schwartz Value Survey across 21 countries”, Journal of Transcultural Psychology, Vol. 34, No., 1, pp. 3-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022102239152

Stewart, E.C., Danielian, J. and Foster, R. (1998), “Cultural assumptions and values”, in Bennett, M.J. (Ed.) Basic Concepts of Intercultural Communication. Selected Readings, Intercultural Press, Maine, pp. 157-172.

Sveningsson, S. and Alvesson, M. (2003), “Managing managerial identities: Organizational fragmentation, discourse and identity struggle”, Human Relations, Vol. 56, No. 10, pp. 1163-1193. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/00187267035610001

Triandis, H.C. (1995), Individualism and collectivism, Westview Press, San Francisco.

Van der Riet, M. and Durrheim, K. 2008. “Putting design into practice: writing and evaluating research proposals”, in Terre Blanche, M.T., Durrheim, K. and Painter, D. (Eds). Research in Practice. Applied methods for the social sciences. University of Cape Town Press, Cape Town, pp. 80-112.

Van der Waal, C.S. (2002), “Diverse approaches in a South African debate on language and diversity in higher education”, Anthropology Southern Africa, Vol. 25, No. (3/4), pp. 24-33.

Viljoen, J.P. and Rothman, S. (2002), “Transformation in a tertiary-education institution: A case study”, Management Dynamics, Vol. 11, pp. 2-10.

Von Rosenstiel, L (2003), Grundlagen der Organisationspsychologie, Schäffer-Poeschel Verlag, Stuttgart.

Wall, J.A. and Callister, R.R. (1995), “Conflict and its management”, Journal of Management, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 515-558. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639502100306

Wallace, J., Hunt, J. and Richards, C. (1999), “The relationship between organizational culture, organizational climate and managerial values”, International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 12, No. 7, pp. 548-564. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09513559910305339

Watkins, D., McInerney, D., Akande, A. and Lee, C. (2003), “An investigation of ethnic differences in the motivation and strategies for learning of students in desegregated South African Schools”, Journal of Transcultural Psychology, Vol. 34, pp. 189-194. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022102250563

Webster, E. and Adler, G. (1999), “Towards a class compromise in South Africa’s “Double Transition”. Bargained liberalization and the consolidation of democracy”, Politics and Society, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 347-385. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0032329299027003003

Welsch, W. 1999. Transculturality – the puzzling form of cultures today. In M. Featherstone & S. Lash (Ed.), Spaces of culture: City, nation, world (pp. 194-213). Sage, London. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446218723.n11

Yin, RK (2002), Case study research: design and methods (2:nd ed.), Sage, London.

Authors

Claude-Hélène Mayer
claudemayer@gmx.net (Primary Contact)
Lynette Louw
Author Biographies

Claude-Hélène Mayer, Department of Management, Rhodes University, South Africa

Claude-Hélène Mayer holds a Masters and a Doctorate in Social and Cultural Anthropology from the University of Göttingen, Germany, as well as a Doctorate in Management from Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa. Her research areas are transcultural conflict management, managerial identity and values, and health in transcultural organisational contexts. She is Professor of Intercultural Business Communication at the University of Applied Sciences in Hamburg, Germany, and Senior Research Associate at Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa.

Lynette Louw, Department of Management, Rhodes University, South Africa

Lynette Louw holds a Baccalaureus Commercii (Honours) and Masters (Cum Laude) and Doctor Commercii degrees from the University of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. She holds the Professorial Raymond Ackerman Chair in Management and Deputy Dean, Faculty of Commerce, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, in South Africa.

Mayer, C.-H., & Louw, L. (2012). Managerial Values in Transcultural Conflicts in South Africa Findings from the Schwartz-Value-Model. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 12(3), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v12i3.606

Article Details

Smart Citations via scite_